Operetta
  • London & New York

    Anyone studying the reception of German operettas in the UK and USA is bound to recognize that the productions in the West End and on Broadway of Franz Lehár’s The Merry Widow mark a new phase. Before The Merry Widow, the last German operetta to successfully hold the stage in London and New York was Carl Zeller’s Der Vogelhändler (Vienna and Berlin, 1891), given as The Bird-seller (New York, 1891; London, 1895). In 1906, George Edwardes, the manager of the Gaiety and Daly’s Theatre, was dissatisfied with the box office returns on a French operetta he was staging and turned his attention, instead, to German operetta. He brought Die lustige Witwe (Vienna, 1905; Berlin, 1906) to Daly’s Theatre as The Merry Widow in 1907 and it ran for a remarkable 778 performances. In New York, later the same year, it notched up 416 performances (runs of over 400 were rare in that city). The success of Die lustige Witwe opened up the possibility of a flourishing market for German operetta.

    Daly’s Theatre, Leicester Square, around 1905
    Daly’s Theatre, Leicester Square, around 1905.*

    The changes made to German operettas when they transferred to London and New York were often striking. George Edwardes at Daly’s believed in “improving” the originals. He said, “It is in presenting a play that the English theatre can outrival the Continent.” He considered the British Merry Widow “much superior” to the Viennese original. Of The Dollar Princess, he boasted that he “bought it [and] altered it” (quoted in Traubner, Operetta, 287). Basil Hood who wrote the new “book” (i.e. the libretto) and Adrian Ross (author of the lyrics) gave it a new Californian Act 3, and wrote a comedy role for W.H. Berry, as well as including new songs. It did achieve 428 consecutive London performances, compared to 117 over a period of six years in Vienna. The libretto of the New York production was by the Gaiety star George Grossmith Jr. He chose to set Act 3 in London.

    Despite the cessation of productions owing to the First World War (first in London, then in New York in 1919), interest was reawakened almost immediately the conflict was over and, from 1920, when Kálmán’s Das Hollandweibchen was produced at the Lyric as A Little Dutch Girl, German operettas held the stage once more. There was a liking for more songs in the British and American productions. Act 3 of Straus’s A Waltz Dream was re-written and extra songs were added by Hamish MacCunn for its 1911 revival at Daly’s. Lehár shows his amenability, or business sense, by being willing to compose new numbers for Gipsy Love in London (which succeeded The Count of Luxembourg at Daly’s in 1912). Leo Fall and his brother Richard added extra numbers to The Dollar Princess. In New York, Jerome Kern supplied two extra numbers. Leo Fall composed four new numbers for Princess Caprice. Sigmund Romberg and Al Goodman provided additional numbers for Kálmán’s Countess Maritza in New York. Romberg also added additional songs to Gilbert’s The Lady in Ermine, which, as The Lady of the Rose in London, had already been given an extra song by Leslie Stuart. The New York critic Alexander Woollcott, wryly remarks of the production of Fall’s The Rose of Stamboul that upon the original score “there seems to have fallen one Sigmund Romberg, a local composer, and now the piece is adorned at intervals with songs that Vienna has yet to hear” (New York Times, 8 Mar. 1922).

    It was not always clear what extra contributions had been written and whom they were by. An unwary critic of the Daly’s revival of A Waltz Dream remarks that he doesn’t find the music as alluring as in 1908, and “the most individual and attractive things of all are in the third act, where we come to Princess Helena’s last song and it’s delightful introduction.” This song, “I Chose a Man to Wed,” was actually composed by Hamish MacCunn (who conducted the performance) as part of a re-written Act 3.

    An American reviewer of Fall’s Lieber Augustin in 1913 is more cautious. He praises the “succession of very delightful melodies,” but adds: “It is getting to be a habit to praise Mr. Leo Fall’s music, and in some respects a bad habit, since a counter-claimant for a ‘song-hit’ is reasonable sure to bob up before many hours pass. Wherefore the announcement that Mr Leo Fall’s music in this piece is entirely charming and appealing must be taken to include any others who may have assisted” (New York Times, 7 Sep. 1913). Another reviewer has a suspicion, on hearing The Last Waltz, that some of the numbers are not by Oscar Straus: “There are several interpolated numbers, unidentified except by internal evidence. You suspect ‘Charming Ladies’ and ‘A Baby in Love’ of having been baptized in the East River rather than the blue Danube” (New York Times, 11 May 1921).

    German operetta moved into a marketplace dominated by musical comedy. The Merry Widow was welcomed in New York as “the greatest kind of a relief from the American musical comedy,” and in London as a “genuine light opera” that is “not overlaid (yet) by buffoonery” (Times, 10 Jun. 1907). The implication is that it may soon acquire buffoonery to make it more appealing to the musical comedy audience. The urge to “liven up” an operetta with a comic routine was found in both London and New York. The production of Straus’s A Waltz Dream in New York had an interpolated number in the second act which the reviewer claims “savored of cheap American musical comedy,” and “was lugged in by the heels to provide a few moments of cheap comedy” (New York Times, 28 Jan. 1908). Crude humour was not the only problem with musical comedy. What had helped it appeal initially was the absence of a complex or ludicrous opera plot, but this lack of attention to plot was seen as a lack of attention to form. A London critic offers A Waltz Dream as an instructive model: “The shapely, tuneful light opera of Vienna is … better than our own gross and formless ‘musical comedy’; and A Waltz Dream is an example which the clever, but idle or, perhaps, hampered makers of English musical pieces might well take to heart.” The music “is not dropped in here and there to relieve the tedium of a senseless plot” (Times, 9 Mar. 1908). Above all, it was the romantic melodies and rich textures of the music that attracted British and American audiences. Here, too, however, there were difference of taste in evidence, as Oscar Straus pointed out to a journalist:

    Your choruses are much bigger, and the ladies, I must admit, are much younger; and, too, you have many more songs than we are content with. Because of this I have had to compose five new numbers for London.(Quoted in Traubner, Operetta, 279)

    At the first, the waltzes were the favourite numbers, and each successful operetta had it big waltz hit: The Merry Widow waltz, the Waltz Dream waltz (“Leise, ganz leise”), “My Hero” from The Chocolate Soldier, and so forth.

    Sometimes the British enthusiasm for German operetta outstripped the enthusiasm in Berlin itself: Gilbert’s Die Frau im Hermelin (Theater des Westens, 1919), which became The Lady of the Rose (Daly’s, 1921), ran for longer in London (514 performances) than it did in Berlin. It was a little less successful in New York, where it ran for 238 performances in all (beginning at the Ambassador in 1922 and transferring to the Century). It needs to be borne in mind that it was rare for any operetta to notch up 300 or more performances in New York (even The Chocolate Soldier only made it to 296). Gilbert went to New York in 1928, where he composed The Red Robe for the Shubert Theatre (it ran for 127 performances, then transferred to Jolson’s Theatre for a further 40).

    One easily forgotten attraction of the operetta was costume. It was noted that Lily Elsie, as the merry widow, made “an unusually beautiful picture in Parisian and Marsovian dresses” (Times, 10 Jun. 1907), and the periodical The Play Pictorial was always sure to carry a number of photographs of the costumes worn in the various productions. In the production of The Count of Luxembourg at Daly’s, the “accessories in dresses and wearers of dresses were as sumptuous as ever” (Times, 22 May 1911). On the gown worn by Lily Elsie on her entry as the bride in the scene where she and René have the partition between them so that they cannot see each other: “This was in Miss Lily Elsie’s favourite blue. Most elaborately embroidered in silver and white, the lower part was a cascade of silver bugle fringes and little crescents of pink and blue flowers peeping in and out around the hem of the skirt. There seemed to be two or three transparent skirts, the overdress, just giving a tantalizing glimpse where I opened at the side” (The Play Pictorial, 18/108, 1911).

    Spectacle and costume continued to be an attraction in the 1920s. One of the most lavish productions came earlier in the next decade. Ralph Benatzky’s White Horse Inn (Im weißen Rössl) was chosen for the reopening of the London Coliseum on 8 April 1931. The dresses for this production were designed by Professor Ernst Stein. The show made it onto the Times London Fashions page, under the heading “Dress on the Stage.” “The greatest dress spectacle of all is White Horse Inn, in which the unending change of scene provides a wonderful grouping of colours […] In this production constant use is made of greens, reds, yellows, and blues, and also of brown, a colour not much in favour with producers but which is introduced with excellent effect in the skirts of the women and the suits of the men.” (Times, 24 Apr. 1931). It was not until several years later that it was seen in New York, but on 1 October 1936 it opened at the Center Theatre “in a beautiful style that should endear it to the hearts of all good showgoers. For the genii of American spectacle making have done one of their handsomest jobs on this international holiday to music.” It involves “mountain scenery and hotel architecture, costumes beautiful and varied enough to bankrupt a designer’s imagination, choruses that can do anything from the hornpipe to a resounding slapdance, grand processionals with royalty loitering before the commoners, a steamboat, a yacht, a char-à-banc, four real cows and a great deal more of the same.” The cows were distinctly unreal in the London production, incidentally. The songs, by Benatzky and others are, “for the most part, simple things which are well-bred and daintily imposing.” Erik Charell, who was partly responsible for the libretto and well as being the director, is praised for “the general spirit of good humor that keeps ‘White Horse Inn’ a congenial tavern” (New York Times, 2 Oct. 1936). A report three days later claimed that the second night’s gross taking at the Center Theatre for White Horse Inn was $7,240, “a sum which smacks of success.” (New York Times, 5 Oct. 1936).

    Operetta production began to decline after 1933; from late in that year it had to conform to the Goebbels regime. Kálmán, Straus, Gilbert, and Ábrahám all left Germany to avoid Nazi persecution. Benatzky and Stolz, neither of whom were Jewish, left of their own accord. Others were not unaffected: Künneke was to discover that the producer of his operetta Liselott (1932) had been murdered in 1933. The most successful operetta of the Third Reich era was perhaps Fred Raymond’s Maske in Blau (1937).

    In London and New York, musical revues, the newer Broadway musicals, sound film (and film musicals), social dancing and dance bands, radio and records were all contributing to the demise of operetta in the 1930s. Also eating away at the German style were the syncopated African-American rhythms from the USA (the cultural threat of which surfaces in some operettas, for instance, Kálmán’s Die Herzogin von Chicago). Some composers of German operetta were adopting American elements (Künneke, Ábrahám), but at other times the influence from Broadway crept into the music in a less conscious way. It seems unlikely that Azuri’s Dance, “Soft as a Pigeon Lights upon the Sand,” from Act 1 of The Desert Song, was not lurking somewhere in Lehár’s mind when he wrote the final scene of Giuditta. A final blow for operetta in London came with the closure of Daly’s in 1937 and the Gaiety in 1938.

    Operetta Productions

    Whenever possible the number of performances of the first production in Vienna, Berlin, London or New York has been checked from more than one source. These sources of statistical information include: J.P. Wearing, The London Stage, 8 vols of which cover the period 1900–1939 (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1981–90, 2nd ed. 2013–14), but the first three volumes do not include theatres like the Empire and Hippodrome, which held music-hall licences; Burns Mantle, The Best Plays of 1909–19, and annual vols pub. Boston: Small, Maynard, 1920–25, and New York: Dodd, Mead 1926–40); Kurt Gänzl and Andrew Lamb, Gänzl’s Book of the Musical Theatre (London: The Bodley Head, 1988); Anton Bauer, 150 Jahre Theater an der Wien (Vienna: Amalthea-Verlag, 1952); Richard C. Norton, A Chronology of American Musical Theater, 3 vols (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002); Gerald Bordman, American Operetta: From H.M.S. Pinafore to Sweeney Todd (New York: Oxford University Press, 1981), Appendix, 185–94; Stanley Green, Encyclopedia of the Musical Theatre (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1976); Robert Ignatius Letellier, Operetta: A Sourcebook (Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars, 2015); the Internet Broadway Database; The Guide to Light Opera & Operetta; and the Ovrtur database of musicals. Note that the performance statistics in Table II, 427–35 of Otto Keller, Die Operette in ihrer Geschichtlichen Entwicklung: Musik, Libretto, Darstellung (Leipzig: Stein Verlag, 1926) give the total number of performances on the German stage up to 1921 of individual operettas dating from 1900 and later. Bauer also includes revivals (up to 30 May 1939) in his performance data for the Theater an der Wien.

    Abbreviations:
    P: Producer
    SD: Stage Director
    MD: Musical Director
    DD: Dance Director (or Choreographer)

    Abraham, Paul (Pál Ábrahám), b. Apatin, Hungary (now Serbia), 2 Nov. 1892, d. Hamburg, 9 May 1960.

    Viktória, Stadttheater (Operettentheater), Budapest, 21 Feb. 1930. Book & lyrics by Imre Földes & Imre Harmath); Viktoria und ihr Husar, Leipzig, 7 Jul. 1930; book & lyrics by Alfred Grünwald & Fritz Löhner-Beda. Metropol-Theater, Berlin, 15 Aug. 1930 (with Rosy Barsony as Viktoria, Oscar Dénes as Ferry, and Lizzi Waldmüller as Lia San); Theater an der Wien, 23 Dec. 1930.

    Viktória, Stadttheater (Operettentheater), Budapest, 21 Feb. 1930. Book & lyrics by Imre Földes & Imre Harmath); Viktoria und ihr Husar, Leipzig, 7 Jul. 1930; book & lyrics by Alfred Grünwald & Fritz Löhner-Beda. Metropol-Theater, Berlin, 15 Aug. 1930 (with Rosy Barsony as Viktoria, Oscar Dénes as Ferry, and Lizzi Waldmüller as Lia San); Theater an der Wien, 23 Dec. 1930.

    Die Blume von Hawaii, Neues Stadttheater, Leipzig, 24 Jul. 1931 (with Anny Ahlers as Laya). Book & lyrics by Alfred Grünwald & Fritz Löhner-Beda, after Imre Földes. No London or New York production.

    Ball im Savoy, Großes Schauspielhaus, Berlin, 23 Dec. 1932 (with Gitta Alpár). Book & lyrics by Alfred Grünwald & Fritz Löhner-Beda.

    Ball at the Savoy, Drury Lane, London, 8 Sep. 1933 (with Maurice Evans as Aristide, Natalie Hall as Madeleine, Oskar Dénes as Mustapha Bei, & Rosy Barsony as Kathi Mihazy, 146 perfs). Book & lyrics by Oscar Hammerstein II. P: Oscar Hammerstein; SD: William Abingdon; MD: Charles Prentice; DD: Jack Donohoe. Not performed in New York, despite Hammerstein’s involvement.

    Ascher, Leo, b. Vienna, 17 Aug. 1880, d. New York, 25 Feb. 1942.

    Was tut man nicht alles Liebe, Ronacher Etablissement, Vienna 17 Dec. 1914. Book & lyrics by Felix Dörmann.

    Follow Me, Casino Theatre, New York, 29 Nov. 1916 (78 perfs); music by Romberg, lyrics by Robert B. Smith. Additional music & lyrics by several other composers. P: the Shuberts. SD: J.H. Benrimo; MD: Frank Tours; DD: Jack Mason & Allan K. Foster.

    Benatzky, Ralph (Rudolf Josef František Benatzki), b. Mährisch-Budwitz, Moravia (now Moravské Budějovice, Czech Republic), 5 Jun. 1884, d. Zürich, 17 Oct. 1957.

    Apachen! Apollotheater, Vienna, 20 Dec. 1920. Book & lyrics by Ignaz Michael Welleminsky.

    The Apache, London Palladium, 15 Feb. 1927 (with Carl Brisson & Dorothy Ward, 166 perfs). Book by Edward A. Horan, lyrics by Dion Titheradge & Clifford Harris. P: Julian Wylie; MD: Horace Sheldon; DD: Edward Dolly.

    Im weißen Rössl, Großes Schauspielhaus, Berlin, 8 Nov. 1930 (with Camilla Spira as Josepha, & Max Hansen as Leopold, 416 perfs). Book by Hans Müller & Erik Charell (after the comedy of 1897 by Oskar Blumenthal & Gustav Kadelburg), lyrics by Robert Gilbert, with additional songs by Robert Stolz, Bruno Granichstädten, & Robert Gilbert.

    White Horse Inn, Coliseum, London, 8 Apr. 1931 to 23 Apr. 1932(with Lea Seidl as Josepha, & Clifford Mollison, 651 perfs). Book & lyrics by Harry Graham, with additional numbers by Robert Stolz. P: Erik Charell; SD: Henry Cocker; MD: Charles Prentice; DD: Max Rivers. Revival Coliseum, 20 Mar. 1940 (270 perfs).

    White Horse Inn, Center Theatre, New York, 1 Oct. 1936 (with Kitty Carlisle & William Gaxton, 223 perfs). Book by David Freedman, lyrics by Irving Caesar. P: Laurence Rivers, Inc.; SD: Erik Charell; MD: Richard Baravalle; DD: Max Rivers. Settings & costumes Ernst Stein, modern dresses Irene Sharaff, lighting Eugene Braun..

    Film 1934 (with Christl Mardayn as Josefa, & Willi Schaeffers as Giesecke), dir. Carl Lamac.

    Casanova, Großes Schauspielhaus, Berlin, 1 Sep. 1928 (with Michael Bohnen as Casanova, Anni Frind as Laura, & Anny Ahlers as Barberina). Book & lyrics by Rudolf Schanzer & Ernst Welisch, with music arranged & adapted from that of Johann Strauss Jr. by Ralph Benatzky. P: Erik Charell.

    Coliseum, London, 24 May 1932 (with Arthur Fear alternating with Charles Mayhew as Casanova, Marie Löhr as Empress Maria Theresa of Austria, & Soffi Schonning as Laura; 2 perfs a day, final perf. 29 Jan. 1933, 429 perfs in all). Book & lyrics by Hans Muller & Harry Graham (the latter writing a new second act). Presenter: Oswald Stoll. P: Erik Charell; SD: Sidney C. Sinclair; MD: Ernst Hanke & Arthur Wood; DD: Max Rivers.

    Meine Schwester und ich, Grosses Schauspielhause, Berlin, 29 Mar. 1930. Book & lyrics by Robert Blum, after Ma Soeur et moi by Georges Berr & Louis Verneuil.

    Meet My Sister, Shubert Theatre, Broadway, 30 Dec. 1930, moved to Imperial Theatre, 6 Apr. 1931 (with Walter Slezak as Eric Molinar & Bettina Hall as Dolly, total perfs 167).

    Meine Schwester und ich, Grosses Schauspielhause, Berlin, 29 Mar. 1930. Book & lyrics by Robert Blum, after Ma Soeur et moi by Georges Berr & Louis Verneuil.

    Meet My Sister, Shubert Theatre, Broadway, 30 Dec. 1930, moved to Imperial Theatre, 6 Apr. 1931 (with Walter Slezak as Eric Molinar & Bettina Hall as Dolly, total perfs 167).

    My Sister and I, Shaftesbury Theatre, London, 23 Feb. 1931 (8 perfs). Book by Laurie Wylie, Brandon Fleming & H.W. Gribble; lyrics by Desmond Carter & Frank Eyton, additional music by Billy Mayerl. Presenter: Edward Laurillard. P: George Grossmith; SD: Charles Maynard; MD: Ernest Irving; DD: Max Rivers.

    Zirkus aimé, Stadttheater, Basel, 5 Mar. 1932 (with Melanie Hoffman). Book & lyrics by Curt Goetz.

    The Flying Trapeze, Alhambra Theatre, London, 4 May 1935 (with Jack Buchanan & Pearly Argyle, 73 perfs). Book & lyrics by Douglas Furber (adapted from Hans Müller, Zirkus aimé, 1928) additional lyrics Desmond Carter & Frank Eyton, & additional music by Mabel Wynne. Revue operetta. Managing Director: Oswald Stoll; Presenter: Jack Buchanan. P: Erik Charell; SD: Stanley Bell & Frank Smythe; MD: Harry Perritt; DD: Frederick Ashton. Costume Designer: Ernst Stern, costumes from Hawes & Curtis, & others.

    Berény, Henri, b. 1871, d. 23 Mar. 1932.

    Lord Piccolo, Johann Strauss Theater, Vienna, 9 Jan. 1910. Book & lyrics by Rudolph Schanzer & Carl Lindau.

    Little Boy Blue, Lyric Theatre, New York, 27 Nov. 1911 to 27 Apr. 1912, then the Grand Opera House, 21 Apr. 1913 (184 perfs in all). Book & lyrics by A.E. Thomas & Edward A. Paulton, additional lyrics by Carolyn Wells, Grant Stewart & others, & additional songs by Paul Rubens & others. P: Henry W. Savage. SD: Frank Smithson; MD: Arthur Weld.

    Das Mädel von Montmartre, Neues Operetten-Theater, Berlin, 1911. Book & lyrics by Rodolph Schanzer, after Georges Feydeau’s farce La Dame de chez Maxim.

    The Girl from Montmartre, Criterion Theatre, New York, 5 Aug. 1912, then Grand Opera House, 4 Jul. 1913 (72 perfs in all). Book & lyrics by Harry B. Smith & Robert B. Smith. Additional music by Jerome Kern & others. P: Charles Frohman. SD: Thomas Reynolds; MD: Harold Vicars.

    Heinrich Berté [Bettelheim], b. Galgócz [now Hlohovec], Hungary, 8 May 1858, d. Perchtoldsdorf, Austria, 23 Aug. 1924.

    Kreolenblut, Operetten-Theater, Hamburg, 1910. Book & lyrics by Ignaz Schneitzer & Emerich von Gatti.

    The Rose of Panama, Daly’s Theatre, New York, 22 Jan. 1912 (24 perfs). Book & lyrics by John L. Shine & Sydney Rosenfeld. P: John Cort. SD: Frank Smithson; MD: Theodore Bendix.

    Das Dreimäderlhaus, Raimundtheater, Vienna, 15 Jan. 1916 to 7 Feb. 1918 (with Fritz Schrödter as Schubert, & Anny Rainer as Hannerl, over 650 perfs, remained in the repertoire & had its 1100 performance at the Raimondtheater on 9 Apr. 1927). Book & lyrics by A.M. Willner & Heinz Reichert, after Rudolph Hans Bartsch’s novel Schwammerl (1912). Music adapted & arranged from that of Schubert. At Friedrich-Wilhelmstädtisches Theater, Berlin, 1916 until 11 Sep. 1918.

    Irving Place Theatre, New York, 1917 (in German).

    Blossom Time, Ambassador Theatre, New York, 29 Sep. 1921, moving to Jolson’s 58th St, then Century (with Bertram Peacock as Schubert, & Olga Cook as Mitzi, 576 perfs in all). Book & lyrics by Dorothy Donnelly, with musical arrangements by Sigmund Romberg. SD: J.C. Huffman; MD: Oscar Radin. In this version, Schubert dies of a broken heart. Revivals: Jolson Theatre, 19 May 1924 (Greek Evans as Schubert, Margaret Merle as Mitzi, 24 perfs), P: the Shuberts; 1926 (Knight MacGregor as Schubert, Beulah Berson as Mitzi, 16 perfs), 1931 (29 perfs), P: the Shuberts; 1938 (19 perfs), P: the Shuberts. (Pub. Leo Feist, 1921).

    Lilac Time, Lyric Theatre, London, 22 Dec. 1922 (with Courtice Pounds as Schubert, & Clara Butterworth as Lili, 628 perfs). Book & lyrics by Adrian Ross, with musical arrangements by G.H. Clutsam. Presented by William Boosey & Alfred Butt. P: Dion Boucicault; MD: Clarence Raybould; DD: Carlotta Mossetti. Costume design: Comelli. Revived Lyric, 26 Dec. 1925 (Frederick Blamey as Schubert, 90 perfs); Daly’s, 23 Dec. 1927 (68 perfs); Daly’s, 24 Dec. 1928 (73 perfs), Lyric, 25 May 1930 (56 perfs), Globe, 26 Dec. 1932 (35 perfs), Alhambra, 23 Dec. 1933 (37 perfs), Coliseum, 29 Jul. 1936 (70 perfs), Stoll, 13 Oct. 1942 (80 perfs). At Aldwych with Richard Tauber on 22 Sep. 1933 (35 perfs), given in German by Viennese Opera Company; Director: L. Léonidoff; MD: Ernest Irving.

    Berté, Emil (1898–1968). [Nephew of Heinrich Berté]

    Musik im Mai, Raimundtheater, Vienna, 13 May 1927. Book & lyrics by Heinz Merley & Kurt Breuer.

    Music in May, Casino Theatre, New York, 1 Apr. 1929 (80 perfs). Book by Fanny Todd Mitchel, lyrics by J. Keirn Brennan. Additional music by Maury Rubens, & some interpolated songs by others. P: the Shuberts; SD: Lou Morton & Stanley Logan; MD: Ivan Rudisill; DD: Chester Hale. Orchestration by Emil Gerstenberger.

    Cuvillier, Charles, b. Paris, 24 Apr. 1877, d. Paris, 14 Feb. 1955.

    Only the operettas composed for the German stage are listed here.

    Flora Bella, Staatstheater am Gärtnerplatz, Munich, 1913; Book & lyrics by Felix Dörmann.

    Casino Theatre, New York, 11 Sep. 1916 (112 perfs). Book & lyrics by Cosmo Hamilton & Dorothy Donnelly; additional music by Milton Schwarzwald. P: John Cort. SD: Richard Ordynski. MD: Gus Salzer. DD: Carl Randall. Scene design: Joseph Urban.

    Der lila Domino, Stadttheater, Leipzig, 3 Feb. 1912. Book & lyrics by Emmerich von Gatti & Béla Jenbach. Cuvillier was a French operetta composer, but set this German libretto. First production in Vienna was also 1912.

    The Lilac Domino, 44th Street Theatre, New York, 28 Oct. 1914 (with Eleanor Painter as Georgine, & Wilfrid Douthitt as Count André de St. Amand, 109 perfs). Book by Harry B. Smith, lyrics by Robert B. Smith. P: Andreas Dippel (Dippell Opéra Comique). SD: Maxwell Olney; MD: Anselm Goetzl.

    The Lilac Domino, Empire Theatre of Varieties, Leicester Square, London, 21 Feb. 1918, transferring to Palace Theatre, Oct. 1919 (with Clara Butterworth as Georgine, & Vincent Sullivan as Elliston Deyn, 747 perfs). The American version with additional dialogue by S. J. Adair Fitzgerald & interpolated numbers by Howard Carr. P: Joseph Sacks. MD: Howard Carr. Revived His Majesty’s, 5 Apr. 1944.

    Eysler, Edmund, b. Vienna, 12 Mar. 1874, d. Vienna, 4 Oct. 1949.

    Künstlerblut, Carltheater, Vienna, 20 Oct. 1906. Book & lyrics by Leo Stein & Carl Lindau.
    The Love Cure, New Amsterdam, New York, 1 Sep. 1909, moved to Grand Opera House, 3 Jan. 1910 (78 perfs in all). Book & lyrics by Oliver Herford. P: Henry W. Savage; SD: George Marion; MD: Augustus Barratt.

    Pufferl, Theater an der Wien, 10 Feb. 1905. Book & lyrics by Ignaz Schnitzer & Sigmund Schlesinger.

    Amor di Principe, Majestic Theatre (now International Theatre), New York, 2 May 1911 (7 perfs); given in Italian.

    Vera Violetta, Apollo-Theater, Vienna, 30 Nov. 1907. Book & lyrics by Leo Stein.

    Winter Garden Theatre, New York, 20 Nov. 1911 (with José Collins, 112 perfs). Book by Leonard Liebling & Harold Atteridge, lyrics by Harold Atteridge. P: the Winter Garden Company; SD: Lewis Morton; MD: Samuel Lehman; DD: William J. Wilson & Joseph C. Smith

    Die Frauenfresser, Bürgertheater, Vienna, 23 Dec. 1911. Book & lyrics by Leo Stein & Karl Lindau. Additional music by Walter Kollo.

    The Woman Haters, Astor Theatre, New York, 7 Oct. 1912 (32 perfs). Book & lyrics by George V. Hobart. P: A.H. Woods; SD: George Marion; MD: John Lund.

    Der lachende Ehemann, Bürgertheater, Vienna, 19 March 1913. Book & lyrics by Julius Brammer & Alfred Grünwald.

    The Laughing Husband, New Theatre, London, 2 Oct. 1913 (with Courtice Pounds as Ottakar Bruckner, & Daisy Irving as Belle Bruckner, 78 perfs). Book & lyrics by Arthur Wimperis. P: Philip Michael Faraday; MD: Jacques Heuvel. Revised as The Girl Who Didn’t, Lyric, London, 18 Dec. 1913 (C.H. Workman as Ottakar Bruckner, Yvonne Arnaud as Etelka von Basewitz, 68 perfs); Grace La Rue (American) as Hella Bruckner sang (&, in Feb. 1914, recorded an interpolated number, “A Tango Dream” (words & music by Elsa Maxwell).

    The Laughing Husband, Knickerbocker Theatre, New York, 2 Feb. 1914 (with Coutrice Pounds as Ottakar Bruckner, & Betty Callish as Hella Bruckner, 48 perfs). Book & lyrics by Arthur Wimperis, as for London. P: Charles Frohman; SD: Edward Royce; MD: Gustave Selzer.

    Ein Tag im Paradies, Bürgertheater, Vienna, 23 Dec. 1913. Book & lyrics by Leo Stein & Béla Jenbach.

    The Blue Paradise, Casino Theatre, New York, 5 Aug. 1915 (with Frances Demarest as Gladys, Vivienne Segal as Mizzi, & Cecil Lean as Stoeger), moved to 44th Street Theatre, 29 May 1016 (total of 356 perfs). Book by Edgar Smith, lyrics by Herbert Reynolds, additional music by Sigmund Romberg (8 songs) & Leo Edwards. P: the Shuberts; SD: J.H. Benrimo; MD: Herbert Kerr; DD: Ed Hutchinson.

    Fall, Leo, b. Olmütz, Moravia (now Olomouc, Czech Republic) 2 Feb. 1873, d. Vienna, 16 Sep. 1925.

    Die Dollarprinzessin, Carltheater, Vienna, 2 Nov. 1907 (with Mizzi Günther as Alice Couder [Couder’s daughter], & Louis Treumann as Fredy Wehrburg, 80 perfs). Book & lyrics by Alfred Maria Willner & Fritz Grünbaum. Neue Schauspielhaus, Berlin, 6 Jun. 1908.

    The Dollar Princess, Daly’s Theatre, London, 25 Sep. 1909 to 3 Dec. 1910 (with Lily Elsie as Alice [Conder’s sister], Robert Michaelis as Freddy, & Joseph Coyne as Harry Q. Conder, 430 perfs). Book & lyrics by Basil Hood & Adrian Ross, with additional numbers by Richard Fall. P: George Edwardes; SD: Edward Royce; MD: Harold Vicars. Costume design: Comelli. Costume providers inc. Margaine Lacroix, Lucile Ltd, & eight others. Try-out at the Prince’s Theatre, Manchester, 24 Dec. 1908. Revival at Daly’s, 4 Feb. 1925 (Evelyn Laye as Alice, Carl Brisson as Harry Q. Conder, 69 perfs).

    The Dollar Princess, Knickerbocker Theatre, New York, 6 Sep. 1909 (with Valli Valli as Alice Cowder [Cowder’s daughter], Donald Brian as Freddy Smythe, E.J. Connoly as John W. Cowder, & Louise Pounds as Olga Labinska, 288 perfs). Book & lyrics by George Grossmith Jr, with additional numbers in Act 3 by Leo Fall (1), Richard Fall (1), W.T. Francis (1) & Jerome D. Kern (3). P: Charles Frohman; SD: J.A.E. Malone; MD: W.T. Francis.

    Der fidele Bauer, Hoftheater, Mannheim, 27 Jul. 1907. Book & lyrics by Victor Léon. Theater an der Wien, 1 Jun. 1908. Theater des Westens, Berlin, 23 Oct. 1908.

    The Merry Peasant, Strand Theatre, London, 23 Oct. 1909 (with Courtice Pounds as Mathaeus, & Sybil Arundale as Annamirl, 69 perfs). Book & lyrics by Cosmo Hamilton, with additional songs by Theodore Holland. P: Herbert Cottesmore; MD: Theodore Stier; DD: Fred Farren. Costume design: Comelli.

    Der fidele Bauer, given in German, Garden Theatre, Madison Ave & 27th Street, New York, 22 Feb. 1911 (12 perfs?).

    Die geschiedene Frau, Carltheater, Vienna, 23 Dec. 1908 (with Mizzi Zwerenz as Jana, Anny Dirkens as Gonda, & Hubert Marschka as Karel). Book & lyrics by Victor Léon, after Victorien Sardou’s play Divorçons! of 1880. First performance in Berlin at the Theater des Westens, 6 Sep. 1910.

    The Girl in the Train, Vaudeville Theatre, London, 4 Jun. 1910 (with Phyllis Dare as Gonda van der Loo, & Robert Evett as Karel van Raalte, 339 perfs); reduced from 3 to 2 acts by Adrian Ross. P: George Edwardes; SD: Edward Royce; MD: Theodore Stier.

    The Girl on the Train, Globe Theatre, New York, 3 Oct. 1910 (with Vera Michelena & Melville Stewart, 40 perfs). 3-act version, book & lyrics by Harry B. Smith. P: Charles Dillingham; SD: Fred G. Latham; MD: Anton Heindl.

    Brüderlein fein, Die Hölle (Theater und Kabarett), Vienna, 1 Dec. 1909. One act.

    Darby and Joan, London Coliseum, London, Aug. 1912.

    Joys of Youth, US version by John A. Bassett, but not performed in New York.

    Die Sirene, Johann Strauss Theater, Vienna, 5 Jan. 1911. Book & lyrics by Leo Stein & A.M. Willner.

    The Siren, Knickerbocker Theatre, New York, 28 Aug. 1911 (with Donald Brian as the Marquis de Ravaillac, 136 perfs). Book by Harry B. Smith, lyrics by Adrian Ross, Herbert Reynolds [M.E. Rourke], et al. Additional music by Jerome Kern, Worton David [Lawrence Wright], & Egbert van Alstyne. P: Charles Frohman; SD: Thomas Reynolds; MD: Harold Vicars.

    The Eternal Waltz, Hippodrome, London, 22 Dec. 1911 – 24 Feb.1912 (with Clara Evelyn, & Ackerman May as Feo Lahll, 100 perfs). Book & lyrics by Austen Hurgon (one act). Operetta to English text. SD: Austen Hurgon; MD: Leo Fall.

    The Eternal Waltz, Palace Theatre, New York, 24 Mar. 1913 (12 perfs). It was the opening production at the Palace Theatre (a new vaudeville theatre located at Broadway & 47th Street). Previously given at the Orpheum Theatre, Seattle, Dec. 1912.

    Das Puppenmädel, Carltheater, Vienna, 4 Nov. 1910. Book & lyrics by Leo Stein & Alfred Maria Willner (after Robert de Flets & Gaston de Caillavet).

    The Doll Girl, Globe Theatre, New York, 25 Aug. 1913 (88 perfs). Book & lyrics by Harry B. Smith. P: Charles Frohman; MD: Gustave Salzer; DD: Edward Royce. Costume design: Comelli.

    Der liebe Augustin, Neues Theater am Schiffbauerdamm, Berlin, 3 Feb. 1912 (with Fritzi Massary as Helene); much revised version of Der Rebell (Vienna, 1905). Book & lyrics for both by Rudolf Bernauer & Ernst Welisch. Fall’s first operetta to be premiered in Berlin.

    Princess Caprice, Shaftesbury Theatre, London, 11 May 1912 (with Harry Welchman as Augustin, Clara Evelyn as Helen, Courtice Pounds as Jasomir, George Graves as Bogumil, & Cicely Courtneidge as Clementine, 265 perfs). Book & lyrics by Alexander M. Thompson, Arthur Scott Craven, Harry Beswick, & Percy Greenbank. P & SD: Robert Courtneidge. MD: Arthur Wood; DD: Espinosa. Fall conducted on the opening night. Successful tour of provinces followed the London run.

    Lieber Augustin, Casino Theatre, New York, 3 Sep. 1913 (with George MacFarlane & May de Sousa, 37 perfs). Book & lyrics by Edgar Smith. P: the Shuberts; SD: J.C. Huffman; MD: John Lund. Song “Look in Her Eyes” by Jerome Kern & Michael E. Rourke. Later renamed Miss Caprice.

    Die Rose von Stambul, Theater an der Wien, Vienna, 2 Dec. 1916 (with Hubert Marischka as Achmed Bey & Betty Fischer as Kondja, 480 performanes). Book & lyrics by Julius Brammer & Alfred Grünwald. Berlin (with Fritzi Massary), 1917.

    The Rose of Stamboul, Century Theatre, New York, 7 Mar. 1922 (with Tessa Kosta as Kondja & Marion Green as Achmed Bey, 111 perfs). Book & lyrics by Harold Atteridge. Additional music by Sigmund Romberg. SD: J.C. Huffman; MD: Alfred Goodman; DD: Allan K. Foster. Costume design: Charles LeMaire; scenic design: Watson Barratt. Production supervised by J.J. Schubert.

    Madame Pompadour, Berliner Theater, Berlin, 9 Sep. 1922 (with Fritzi Massary as Madame Pompadour). Book & lyrics by Rudolf Schanzer & Ernst Welisch. Massary also played the same role in Vienna.

    Madame Pompadour, Daly’s Theatre, London, 20 Dec. 1923 (with Evelyn Laye in the title role, Bertram Wallis as Louis XV, & Derek Oldham as René, Comte d’Estrades, 461 perfs). Book by Frederick Lonsdale & Harry Graham, lyrics by Harry Graham. P: Fred J. Blackman; MD: Arthur Wood. Set designers: Alfred Terraine, Joseph & Phil Harker. Costume design: Comelli.

    Mme. Pompadour, Martin Beck Theatre, New York, 11 Nov. 1924 (with Wilda Bennett as Mme. Pompadour, John Quinlan as René, 80 perfs). Book & lyrics by Clare Kummer. P: Charles Dillingham & Martin Beck; SD: R.H. Burnside; MD: Oscar Radin. It was the opening production at this new theatre.

    Neufassung [revd version] 1927.

    Rosen aus Florida, Theater an der Wien, 22 Feb. 1929 (244 perfs). Act 1 only completed (in short score) before Fall’s death in 1925. Book & lyrics by Alfred Maria Willner & Hans Reichert. Fall’s widow asked Korngold to complete the work, based on the sketches he had left. He did so in 1929.

    Fall, Richard, b. Gewitsch [now Jevíčko], 3 Apr. 1882, d. KZ Auschwitz, beginning of 1945.

    Arms and the Girl, London Hippodrome, 29 Apr. 1912 (with G.P. Huntley, May de Sousa, & Jean Aylwin, 95 perfs). Book & lyrics by Austen Hurgon.

    Felix, Hugo, b. Vienna, 19 Nov. 1866, d. Los Angeles, 24 Aug. 1934.

    Madame Sherry, Central-Theater, Berlin, 1902. Book & lyrics by Maurice Ordonneau translated into German by Benno Jacobson.

    Madame Sherry, Apollo Theatre, London, 23 Dec. 1903 (with Nigel Playfair as Mac Sherry, & Florence St John as Catherine, 102 perfs). Book by Charles E. Hands, lyrics by Adrian Ross. P: George Edwardes; SD: J.A.E. Malone; MD: Barter Johns; DD: Willie Warde.

    Madame Sherry, New Amsterdam Theatre, New York, 30 Aug. 1910 (with Jack Gardner as Edward Sherry, & Elizabeth Murray as Catherine, 231 perfs). Music mainly Karl Hoschna, with new book & lyrics by Otto Hauerbach; additional numbers by other composers. SD: George W. Lederer; MD: Hans S. Linne.

    The Merveilleuses (later called The Lady Dandies), Daly’s Theatre, London, 27 Oct. 1906 (with Robert Evett as Dorlis & Denise Orme as Illyrine, 197 perfs). Book by Basil Hood (after Victorien Sardou); lyrics by Adrian Ross. P: George Edwardes; SD: J.A.E. Malone; MD: Barter Johns; DD: Willie Warde.

    Tantalizing Tommy, Criterion Theatre, New York, 1 Oct. 1912 (31 perfs). Book by Michael Morton, after Paul Gavault’s play La Petite Chocolatière, lyrics by Adrian Ross. P: A.H. Woods; SD: George Marion; MD: Hans S. Linne.

    The Pearl Girl, Shaftesbury Theatre, London, 25 Sep. 1913 (254 perfs). Book & lyrics by Basil Hood. Music by Hugo Felix & Howard Talbot. P & SD: Robert Courtneidge; MD: Arthur Wood; DD: Willie Warde.

    Pom-pom, Cohan Theatre, 28 Feb. 1916 (128 perfs). Book & lyrics by Anne Caldwell. P: Henry W. Savage; SD: George Marion; MD: Max Bendix.

    Lassie, Nora Bayes Theatre, New York, 6 Apr. 1920, transf. to Casino (159 perfs). Book & lyrics by Catherine Chisholm Cushing. P: Lassie, Inc.; SD: Edward Royce; MD: Emo Rapee.

    Peg-o’-My-Dreams, Jolson Theatre, New York, 5 May 1924 (32 perfs). Book by J. Hartley Manners (based on his own play), lyrics by Anne Caldwell. P: Richard Herndon; SD: Hassard Short; MD: Gustave Salzer.

    Gilbert, Jean (real name, Max Winterfeld), b. Hamburg 11 Feb. 1879, d. Buenos Aires, 20 Dec. 1942.

    Die keusche Susanne, Wilhelm Theater, Magdeburg, 26 Feb. 1910. Book & lyrics by Georg Okonkowski, lyrics by Alfred Schönfeld, after Antony Mars & Maurice Desvallières’s play Le Fils à papa (1906). Carltheater, Vienna, 18 Mar. 1911.

    Modest Suzanne, Liberty Theatre, 1 Jan. 1912 (24 perfs). Book & lyrics by Harry B. Smith & Robert B. Smith. P: A.H. Woods & H.H. Frazee; SD: George Marion; MD: Louis F. Gottschalk. Stanislaus Stange’s adaptation of the original French play Le Fils à papa (1906) by Antony Mars & Maurice Desvallières had been given at the Astor Theatre, 24 Oct. 1910 (with songs by Benjamin Hapgood Burt, 48 perfs). Stange gave it the title The Girl in the Taxi.

    The Girl in the Taxi, Lyric Theatre, London, 5 Sep. 1912 (Yvonne Arnaud as Suzanne, Arthur Playfair as Baron Dauvray, C.H. Workman as Pomarel, 384 perfs). Book & lyrics by Frederick Fenn & Arthur Wimperis. P & SD: Philip Michael Faraday; MD: Jacques Heuvel. Revived Lyric, 1 Nov. 1913 (48 perfs), Garrick, 23 Jan. 1915 [wartime] (165 perfs). 597 perfs 1913–15.

    Die Kino-Königin, Metropol-Theater [now the Komische Oper], Berlin, 8 Mar. 1913. Book & lyrics by Georg Okonkowski & Julius Freund.

    The Queen of the Movies, Globe Theatre, New York, 12 Jan. 1914 (104 perfs). Book & lyrics by Glen MacDonough. Additional music & lyrics by Leslie Stuart & Irving Berlin. P: Thomas W. Ryley; SD: Herbert Gresham; MD: Hugo Riesenfeld. Scene & costume design: Hugo Baruch.

    The Cinema Star, Shaftesbury Theatre, London, 4 June 1914 (Dorothy Ward as Louise, Cicely Courtneidge as Phyllis, Harry Welchman as Victor, & Jack Hulbert as Billy, 108 perfs). Book & lyrics by Jack Hulbert, lyrics by Harry Graham, additional lyrics by Percy Greenbank. P & SD: Robert Courtneidge; MD: Arthur Wood.

    Das Autoliebchen, Thalia-Theater, Berlin, 16 Mar. 1912. Book by Jean Kren, lyrics by Alfred Schönfeld.

    The Joy-Ride Lady, New Theatre, London, 21 Feb. 1914, transferred to Garrick 9 May 1914 (105 perfs in all). Book & lyrics by Arthur Anderson & Hartley Carrick. P: Sydney Ellison; MD: George W. Byng; DD: Renée Verue.

    Backseat Baby, Yorkville Theatre, New York, 1917-18 season. Produced by Adolf Philipp.

    Die moderne Eva, Neues Operetten-Theater, Berlin, 18 Oct. 1911. Book & lyrics by Georg Okonowski & Arthur Schönfeld.

    A Modern Eve, Casino Theatre, New York, 3 May 1915 (56 perfs). Book by William M. Hough, lyrics by Benjamin Hapgood Burt; additional music by Victor Hallaender & Jerome Kern. P: John Cort; MD: Ben Jermone; DD: Julian Alfred.

    Fräulein Trallala, Neues Luisen-Theater, Königsberg, 15 Nov. 1913. Book by Georg Okonkowski, lyrics by Leo Leipziger.

    Mam’selle Tralala, Lyric, 16 Apr. 1914 (Yvonne Arnaud as Noisette, 107 perfs). Book & lyrics by Arthur Wimperis & Hartley Carrick. SD: Philip Michael Faraday; MD: Jacques Heuval. Second production, with score much revised, as Oh! Be Careful! at the Garrick, 19 Jun. 1915 (Yvonne Arnaud again as Noisette, 33 perfs). MD: Leonard Hornsey.

    Die Frau im Hermelin, Thalia-Theater, Berlin, 1919. Book & lyrics by Rudolf Schanzer & Ernst Welisch.

    The Lady of the Rose, Daly’s Theatre, London, 21 February 1922 (with Harry Welchman as Colonel Belovar & Phyllis Dare as Mariana, 516 perfs). Book & lyrics by Frederick Lonsdale, lyrics by Harry Graham with additional song “Catch a Butterfly” by Leslie Stuart (lyrics by H. Graham). P & SD: Fred J. Blackman; MD: Merlin Morgan; DD: A.H. Majilton. Costume design: Comelli. Revived Daly’s 26 Apr. 1929 (Welchman as Belovar again, 27 perfs). Try-out at Prince’s Theatre, Manchester, 26 Dec. 1921. Advertised as a George Edwardes Production (although he had dies in 1915).

    The Lady in Ermine, Ambassador Theatre, New York, 2 October 1922, transferred to Century Theatre, New York, 29 January 1923 (Wilda Bennett as Mariana, & Walter Woolf as Colonel Belovar, 238 perfs in all). Book by Frederick Lonsdale & Cyrus Wood, lyrics by Harry Graham & Cyrus Wood; additional music by Alfred Goodman. SD: Charles Sinclair; MD: Oscar Bradley; DD: Jack Mason & Allan K. Foster. Production supervised by J.J. Shubert.

    The Lady in Ermine, film, dir. James Flood, 1927.

    The Lady in Ermine, film, dir. James Flood, 1927.

    That Lady in Ermine, film musical, dir. Ernst Lubitsch, 1948 (music by Friedrich Hollaender & Leo Robin): watch on YouTube

    Katja die Tänzerin, Vienna, 1922. Book & lyrics by Leopold Jacobson & Rudolph Österreicher.

    Katja, the Dancer, Gaiety Theatre, London, 21 February 1925, transferred to Daly’s, 7 Sep. 1925 (with Lilian Davies as Katja, & Gregory Stroud as the Prince, 514 perfs). Book by Harry Graham & Frederick Lonsdale, lyrics by Harry Graham. P & SD: Fred J. Blackman; MD: Idris Lewis. Costume design: Comelli. Try-out at Prince’s, Bradford, 4 Aug. 1924.

    Katja, 44th Street Theatre, New York, 18 October 1926 (with Lilian Davies as Katja & Allan Prior as the Prince, 112 perfs). London version. Additional music by Maurice Rubens & Ralph Benatzky. SD: J.C. Huffman; MD: Oscar Radin; DD: Max Scheck. Production supervised by J.J. Shubert.

    Uschi, Hamburg, 1925. Book & lyrics by Leo Kastner & Alfred Möller.

    Yvonne, Daly’s, London, 22 May 1926 (with Ivy Tresmand & Arthur Pusey, 281 perfs). Book & lyrics by Percy Greenbank, with additional music by Vernon Duke (under his birth name Dukelsky), & Arthur Wood. P & SD: Herbert Mason; MD: Arthur Wood; DD: Fred A. Leslie.

    The Girl from Cook’s, Gaiety, London, 1 Nov. 1927 (30 perfs). Book & lyrics by R.H. Burnside & Greatrex Newman; additional music by Raymond Hubbell. Mus. arr. by Frank Tours. P: Bestown Productions; SD: R.H. Burnside; MD: Leonard Hornsey.

    Das Weib in Purpur, Vienna, 1923. Book & lyrics by Leopold Jacobson & Rudolf Oesterreicher.

    The Red Robe, Sam S. Shubert Theatre, New York, 25 Dec. 1928 transferred to Jolson’s Theatre 13 May 1929 (167 perfs). Book by Harry B. Smith & Edward Delaney Dunn (based on Under the Red Robe by Stanley Weyman), lyrics by Harry B. Smith. P: the Shuberts; SD: Stanley Logan; MD: unknown.

    Hotel Stadt Lemberg, Hamburg, 1929. Book & lyrics by Ernst Neubach, after the novel by Lajos Biró.

    Marching By, Chanin’s 46th Street Theatre, New York, 3 Mar. 1932 (12 perfs). Book by Harry B. Smith & Harry Clarke, lyrics by Harry B. Smith. Additional music by Harry Revel, Gus Edwards, et al. P: the Shuberts; SD: J.C. Huffman; MD: George Hirst; DD: Allan K. Foster.

    Die kleine Sünderin, Berlin 1922. Book by Hans Hellmut Zerlett, lyrics by Willy Prager & Robert Gilbert. [Not Die große Sünderin as given in Wearing.]

    Lovely Lady, Phoenix, London, 25 Feb. 1932 (Polly Walker as Peggy, 4 perfs); Book & lyrics by Arthur Wimperis. P: Edward Laurillard; SD: Ben Taylor; MD: Philip Braham? Try-out at the Opera House, Manchester, 1 Feb. 1932.

    Goetzl, Anselm, b. 1876, d. 9 Jan. 1923.

    The Royal Vagabond, Cohan & Harris Theatre, New York, 17 Feb. 1919 (348 perfs). Book by Stephen Ivor-Szinney & William Carey Duncan, lyrics by W.C. Duncan; additional numbers by George M. Cohan. P: Cohan & Harris; SD: Julian Mitchell & Sam Forrest. MD: Gustave Salzer.

    The Rose Girl, Ambassador Theatre, New York, 11 Feb. 1921 (110 perfs). SD: Hassard Short.

    Granichstaedten, Bruno, b. Vienna, 1 Sep. 1879, d. New York, 30 May 1944 (went to America in 1938).

    Bub oder Mädel?, Johann Strauss Theater, Vienna, 13 Nov. 1908. Book & lyrics by Felix Dörmann & Adolf Altmann.

    The Rose Maid, Globe, New York, 22 Apr. 1912 (181 perfs). Book by Harry B. Smith & Raymond Peck, lyrics by Robert B. Smith. SD: George Marion; MD: Robert Hood Bowers; DD: William Rock. Produced by Louis F. Werber & Mark A. Luescher.

    Der Orlow, Theater an der Wien, 1925. Book & lyrics by Ernst Marischka.

    Hearts and Diamonds, Strand, 1 Jun. 1926 (with George Metaxa as Alex Dorotchinsky, & Darly Aitken as Mildred Harris, 43 perfs). Book by P.G. Wodehouse, lyrics by Graham John; additional numbers by Max Darewski. Director, Set & Costume Design: Theodore Komisarjevsky; MD: Max Darewski.

    Heuberger, Richard, b. Graz, 18 Jun. 1850, d. Vienna, 28 Oct. 1914.

    Der Opernball, Theater an der Wien, 5 Jan. 1898. Book & lyrics Viktor Léon & Heinrich von Waldberg, after a comedy by Alfred Hennequin & Alfred Delacour.

    Liberty Theatre, New York, in German, 24 May 1909.

    The Opera Ball, Liberty Theatre, New York, 12 Feb. 1912 (32 perfs). Book & lyrics by Sydney Rosenfeld & Clare Kummer; additional songs by Jerome Kern & Chris Smith. MD: Josiah Zuro.

    Film 1939. archive.org/details/OpernballPikantesVerwirrspielMitHansMoser

    Hirsch, Hugo, b. Birnbaum [now Międzychód], Provinz Posen [now Poznań], 12 Mar. 1884, d. Berlin, 16 Aug. 1961.

    Der Fürst von Pappenheim, Deutsches Künstlertheater, Berlin, 6 Feb. 1923.

    Toni, Shaftesbury Theatre, London, 12 May 1924 (with Jack Buchanan as Toni, 248 perfs). Book & lyrics by Douglas Furber & Harry Graham. Additional music by Stephen Jones. P: Herbert Bryan; SD: Frank Smythe; MD: Thomas Tunbridge; DD: Jack Buchanan.

    Holländer, Victor, b. Leobschütz (Schlesien, now Głubczyce), 20 Apr. 1866, d. Hollywood, 24 Oct. 1940.

    [Father of Friedrich Hollaender]

    The Charity Girl, Globe Theatre, New York, 2 Oct. 1912 (21 perfs). Book & lyrics by Edward Peple, additional lyrics by Melville Alexander. Additional music by Gene Hodgkins, Ernest Brewer, & others. P: & SD: George W. Lederer; MD: Albert Krausse.

    Holländer contributed to A Modern Eve (Gilbert).

    Jacobi, Viktor, b. Budapest, 22 Oct. 1883, d. New York, 19 Dec. 1921.

    Leányvásár, Király Színház (King’s Theatre), Budapest, 14 Nov. 1911 (with Sári Petráss, Sári Fedák, Ernö Király, & Árpád Latabár). Book & lyrics by Max Brody & Ferenc Martos.

    Mädchenmarkt, Carltheater, Vienna, 5 Jul. 1912. German version by E. Motz & Eugen Spero.

    Mädchenmarkt, Carltheater, Vienna, in 1912. German version by E. Motz & Eugen Spero.

    The Marriage Market, Daly’s, 17 May 1913 (with Robert Michaelis as Jack, Sári Petráss as Mariposa, Gertie Millar as Kitty, W.H. Berry & G.P. Huntley, 423 perfs). Book by Gladys Unger, lyrics by Arthur Anderson & Adrian Ross. P & SD: Edward Royce. MD: Franz Ziegler. Costume Design: Comelli.

    The Marriage Market, Knickerbocker, New York, 22 Sep. 1913 (with Donald Brian as Edward Fleetwood, & Venita Fitzhugh as Mariposa Gilroy, 88 perfs). Same as London, but with interpolated songs by Jerome Kern & others. P: Charles Frohman; SD: Edward Royce: MD: Harold Vicars. Costume design: Comelli. Costumes by Mme Zimmerman, Lucile, & others.

    Szibill, Király Színház (King’s Theatre), Budapest, 27 Feb. 1914. Book & lyrics by Max Brody & Ferenc Martos.

    Sybill, Stadttheater, Vienna, 2 Dec. 1919. Book & lyrics by Robert Bodansky.

    Sybil, Liberty Theatre, New York, 10 Jan. 1916 (with Julia Sanderson as Sybil, & Donald Brian as the Grand Duke, 168 perfs). Book & lyrics by Harry Graham, additional lyrics by Harry B. Smith. P: Charles Frohman; SD: Fred G. Latham; MD: Harold Vicars. Try-out National, Washington D.C., 27 Dec. 1915.

    Sybil, Daly’s, London, 19 Feb. 1921 (with José Collins as Sybil, & Harry Welchman as the Grand Duke, 374 perfs). Same version as New York. P: Seymour Hicks; SD: Fred J. Blackman; MD: Merlin Morgan; costumes Reville & Comelli. Try-out at Palace Theatre, Manchester, 27 Dec. 1920.

    Rambler Rose, Empire, New York, 10 Sep. 1917 (72 perfs). Book & lyrics by Harry B. Smith. P: Charles Frohman; SD: W.H. Bentley; MD: Harold Vicars; DD: Jack Mason.

    Apple Blossoms (with Fritz Kreisler), Globe, New York, 7 Oct. 1919 (256 perfs). Book & lyrics by William Le Baron. P: Charles Dillingham; SDs: Fred G. Latham & Edward Royce; MD: William Daly. (See Kreisler.)

    The Half Moon, Liberty, New York, 1 Nov. 1920 (48 perfs). Book & lyrics by William Le Baron. P: Charles Dillingham; SD: Fred G. Latham; MD: Harold Vicars; DD: Allan K. Foster.

    The Love Letter, Globe, New York, 4 Oct. 1921 (with Fred & Adele Astaire, 31 perfs). Book & lyrics by William Le Baron, afger Ferenc Molnár’s play The Phantom Rival. Prod. Charles Dillingham; SD: Edward Royce; MD: William Daly.

    Jarno, Georg, b. Buda (now Budapest), 3 Jun. 1868, d. Breslau (now Wrocław), 25 May 1920.

    Die Försterchristl, Theater in der Josefstadt, Vienna, 17 Dec. 1907. Book & lyrics by Bernhard Buchbinder.

    The Girl and the Kaiser, Herald Square Theatre (Broadway), 22 Nov. 1910 (64 perfs). Book & lyrics by Leonard Liebling. P: Sam S. & Lee Shubert; MD: Oscar Radin.

    German films released 1926 (released as The Bohemian Dancer in USA, 1928), 1931 (additional mus. by Granichstaedten), 1952 & 1962 (the last two called in Eng. The Forester’s Daughter).

    Kálmán, Emmerich [Imre Koppstein], b. Siófok, Hungary, 24 Oct. 1882, d. Paris, 30 Oct. 1953.

    (Buried at Zentralfriedhof, Vienna, as was Leo Fall.)

    Tatárjárás, Vigszínház Theatre, Budapest, 22 Feb. 1908. Book by Károly von Bakyonyi, lyrics by Andor Gabor.

    Ein Herbstmanöver, Theater an der Wien, Vienna, 21 Jan. 1909 (with Louise Kartousch as Marosi, Otto Storm as Lörenthy, & Max Pallenberg as Wallerstein); Book & lyrics by Robert Bodanzky. Conducted by Robert Stolz.

    The Gay Hussars, Knickerbocker Theatre, New York, 29 Jul. 1909 (44 perfs). Book & lyrics by Maurice Browne Kirby, lyrics by Grant Stewart. P: Henry W. Savage; SD: George Marion; MD: Gustave Salzer.

    Autumn Manoeuvres, Adelphi Theatre, 25 May 1912 (with Robert Evett & Gracie Leigh, 74 perfs). Book & lyrics by Henry Hamilton; additional music by Lionel Monckton, Howard Talbot, Hamish McCunn, Herbert Bunning, & Carl Kiefert. Just three numbers by Kálmán. P: A.E. Malone; MD: Carl Kiefert; DD: Willie Warde. Costumes by Lucile, & others.

    The Blue House, London Hippodrome, 28 Oct. 1912 (with Shirley Kellogg as Cornelia Van Huyt of the USA, & Bert Coote as the Honourable Chippendale St Arch, 64 perfs). Book & lyrics by Austen Hurgon. P: Frank Allen & Edward Moss. [Score lost.]

    Der Zigeunerprimás, Johann Strauss Theater, Vienna, 11 Oct. 1912. Book & lyrics by Fritz Grünbaum & Julius Wilhelm.

    Sári, Liberty Theatre, NY, 13 Jan. 1914, moving to New Amsterdam (with Mitzi Hajos as Sári, 151 perfs). Book by Catherine Chisholm Cushing & E.P. Heath, lyrics by Catherine Cushing. P: Henry W. Savage. SD: George Marion; MD: Max Bendix. Revival Liberty Theatre, 29 Jan. 1930 (15 perfs), diff. performers, except Mitzi Hajos, but same producer & directors.

    Zsuzsi kisasszony [Little Miss Susie], Vigszínház Theatre, Budapest, 27 Feb. 1912. Book & lyrics by Ferenc Martos & Miksa Bródy.

    Die Faschingsfee, Johann Strauss Theater, Vienna, 21 Sep. 1917. Book & lyrics by Arthur Willner & Rudolf Österreicher.

    Miss Springtime, New Amsterdam Theatre, New York, 25 Sep. 1916 (with George MacFarlane, 224 perfs). Book by Guy Bolton, lyrics by P.G. Wodehouse & Herbert Reynolds. Additional music by Jerome Kern. P: Klaw & Erlanger; SD: Herbert Gresham; MD: Charles Previn; DD: Julian Mitchell. [NB preceded Die Faschingsfee.]

    Az obsitos, Vigszínház Theatre, Budapest, 16 Mar. 1910. Book & lyrics by Karl von Bakonyi.

    Der gute Kamerad, Bürgertheater, Vienna, 27 Oct. 1911. Book & lyrics by Victor Léon. Revised by Léon as Gold gab ich für Eisen, Theater an der Wien, 17 Oct. 1914.

    Her Soldier Boy, Astor Theatre, New York, 6 Dec. 1916, moved to Lyric then Shubert (198 perfs). Book & lyrics by Rida Johnson Young. Additional music by Sigmund Romberg. P: the Shuberts (Lee & J.J.); SD: J.J. Shubert; MD: Augustus Barratt; DD: Jack Mason.

    Soldier Boy!, Apollo Theatre, London, 26 Jun. 1918 (374 perfs). Rida Johnson Young’s version further revised by Edgar Wallace; music adapted by Frederick Chappelle (Kálmán not credited—perhaps because this was wartime). P: Albert de Courville; SD: J.H. Benrimo; MD: Leonard Hornsey; DD: Frank Smithson. As with the New York version, it included George & Felix Powell’s “Pack up Tour Troubles in Your Old Kit Bag.”

    Das Hollandweibchen, Johann Strauß-Theater, Vienna, 30 Jan. 1920. Book & lyrics by Leo Stein & Bela Jenbach.

    A Little Dutch Girl, Lyric Theatre, London, 1 Dec. 1920 (with Maggie Teyte as Princess Julia, 215 perfs). Book by Harry Graham & Seymour Hicks, lyrics by Harry Graham. P: Seymour Hicks & J.L. Sacks; MD: Jacques Heuval; DD: Willie Warde.

    The Dutch Girl, Majestic Theatre, Boston, 22 Jan. 1925; did not reach Broadway.

    Die Csárdásfürstin, Johann Strauss Theater, Vienna, 17 Nov. 1915 (with Mizzi Günther as Sylva). Book & lyrics by Leo Stein & Béla Jenbach.

    The Riviera Girl, New Amsterdam Theatre, New York, 24 Sep. 1917 (with Wilda Bennett as Sylva Vareska & Carl Gantvoort as Victor de Berryl, 78 perfs). Book by Guy Bolton & P.G. Wodehouse, lyrics by P.G. Wodehouse. Interpolated number “The Bungalow in Quogue” by Jerome Kern (lyrics by Wodehouse). Set in Monte Carlo. P: Klaw & Erlanger; SD: Herbert Gresham; MD: Charles Previn; DD: Julian Mitchell.

    The Gipsy Princess, Prince of Wales Theatre, London, 26 May 1921, transferred to Strand, 3 Oct. (with Sará Petráss as Sylva, 212 perfs). Book by Arthur Miller & lyrics by Arthur Stanley. P: Claude B. Yearsley, De Groot; SD: William J. Wilson; MD: Robert Cox. Revival Saville, 14 Jun 1944.

    Film version: Die Czardasfürstin (1934) starring Marta Eggerth.

    Die Bajadere, Carltheater, Vienna, 23 Dec. 1921. Book & lyrics by Julius Brammer & Alfred Grünwald.

    The Yankee Princess, Knickerbocker Theatre, New York, 2 Oct. 1922 (Thorpe Bates as Prince Radjami of Lahore, & Vivienne Segal as Odette Darimonde, 80 perfs). Book & lyrics by William Baron & B.G. deSylva (mus.). P: A.L. Erlanger; SD: Frederick G. Latham; MD: William Daly; DD: Julian Mitchell.

    Given in Yiddish (as Parisian Love) at the Schulman-Goldberg Public Theatre, 2nd Ave & 4th St, NY (seating 1743), 27 Jan. 1927 (Mischa Applebaum as Prince Radjami). Given in German at the Deutsches Theater, New York, 1 Oct. 1925.

    Gräfin Mariza, Theater an der Wien, Vienna, 28 Feb. 1924 (with Betty Fischer as Mariza, & Hubert Marischka as Tassilo). Book & lyrics by Julius Brammer & Alfred Grünwald.

    Countess Maritza, Shubert Theatre, New York, 18 Sep. 1926 (with Yvonne d’Arle & Walter Woolf, 321 perfs). Book & lyrics by Harry B. Smith, with additional numbers by Sigmund Romberg & Al Goodman. P: the Shuberts; SD: J.J. Shubert; MD: anon. Revived Century Theatre, 9 Apr. 1928 (16 perfs).

    Maritza, Palace Theatre, London, 6 Jul. 1938 (with Mara Lossef & John Garrick, 68 perfs). Book & lyrics by Robert Layer-Parker, Eddie Garr, & Arthur Stanley. P: J. Whyte-Melville Skeffington; SD: Robert Nesbitt; MD: George Walter; DD: Freddie Carpenter.

    Film version: 1925, & 1932 (with Dorothea Wieck & Hubert Marischka).

    Die Zirkusprinzessin, Theater an der Wien, 26 Mar. 1926 (with Hubert Marischka & Betty Fischer). Book & lyrics by Julius Brammer & Alfred Grünwald.

    The Circus Princess, Winter Garden Theatre, New York, 25 Apr. 1927 (with Guy Robertson & Desiree Tabor, 192 perfs). Book & lyrics by Harry B. Smith. P: the Shuberts; SD: J.C. Huffman & Marcel Varnell; MD: Alfred Goodman; DD: Allan K. Foster.

    Golden Dawn, [Arthur] Hammerstein’s Theatre (Temple of Music), New York, 30 Nov. 1927 (with Louise Hunter as Dawn, Paul Gregory as Steve Allen, and Archie Leach [Cary Grant] as Anzac, 184 perfs). Book & lyrics by Otto Harbach & Oscar Hammerstein. Additional music by Herbert Stothart. P: Arthur Hammerstein; SD: Reginald Hammerstein; MD: Herbert Stothart; DD: Dave Bennett. Scenic design: Joseph Urban.

    Die Herzogin von Chicago, Theater an der Wien, 5 Apr. 1928 (301 perfs). Book & lyrics Julius Brammer & Alfred Grünwald.

    The Duchess of Chicago, USA, 1929 (not given on Broadway).

    Das Veilchen vom Montmartre, Johann-Strauss Theater, Vienna, 21 Mar. 1930. Book & lyrics by Julius Brammer & Alfred Grünwald.

    Paris in Spring, San Francisco, 1930. P: Lillian Albertson & Louis Owen Macloon. Not given on Broadway.

    A Kiss in Spring, Alhambra Theatre, London, 28 Nov. 1932 (Eric Bertner as Raoul, & Eileen Moody as Violette, 83 perfs). Book & lyrics by Lawrence du Garde Peach, additional music by Herbert Griffiths. P: Oswald Stoll; SD: Norman Marshall; DD: Frederick Ashton.

    Ronny, film operetta, Gloria Palast, Berlin, 22 Dec. 1931. Book & lyrics by R. Schünzel, E. Pressburger, R. Schranzer, & E. Welisch.

    Marinka, Winter Garden Theatre, New York, 18 Jul. 1945, moved to Ethel Barrymore Theatre (with Joan Roberts, total perfs 165). Book by George Marion Jr. & Karl Farkas, lyrics by Marion Jr. Music orchestrated by Hans Spialek. This was a New York premiere. It was based on the story of Mayerling. P: Jules J. Leventhal & Harry Howard; SD: Hassard Short; MD: Ray Kavanagh; DD: Albertina Rasch.

    Arizona Lady, Stadttheater, Berne, 14 Feb. 1954; libretto by Alfred Grünwald and Gustav Beer. Operetta completed by his son, Charles Kálmán. Its premiere was a radio broadcast in Jan. 1954. The American premiere was as in 2010, given by the Chicago Folks Operetta.

    Kollo, Walter, b. Neidenburg, 28 Jan. 1878, d. Berlin, 30 Sep. 1940.

    Filmzauber, see Sirmay.

    Wie einst im Mai, Berliner Theater, Berlin, 4 Oct. 1913. Book & lyrics by Rudolf Bernauer, Rudolf Schanzer, & Willy Bredschneider.

    Maytime, Shubert Theatre, NY, 16 Aug. 1917, trfd to 44th Street, then Broadhurst, then Lyric, then again Broadhurst (with Peggy Wood & Charles Purcell, 492 perfs). Book & lyrics by Rida Johnson Young. Music is by Sigmund Romberg. P: the Shuberts (Lee & J.J.); SD: Edward P. Temple; MD: Frank Tours; DD: Allen K. Foster.

    Drei alte Schachteln, Theater am Nollendorfplatz, Berlin 1917 (Claire Waldoff as Auguste). Book by Herman Haller, lyrics by Rideamus (Fritz Oliven), based on J.M. Barrie’s play Quality Street.

    Phoebe of Quality Street, Shubert Theatre, 9 May 1921 (16 perfs). Book & lyrics by Edward Delaney Dunn. P: the Shuberts; SD: W.H. Gilmore & Max Scheck; MD: Max Steiner.

    Sterne, die wieder leuchtet, Berlin 1918. Book & lyrics by Rudolf Bernhauser & Rudolf Schanzer, after Michael Klapp.

    Springtime of Youth, Broadhurst Theatre, NY, 26 Oct. 1922 (George MacFarlane as Roger Hathaway, & Olga Steck as Priscilla Alden, 68 perfs). Book & lyrics by Harry B. Smith, Matthew C. Woodward, & Cyrus Wood; additional music by Sigmund Romberg. P: the Shuberts; SD: John Harwood & J.C. Huffman; MD: Frank Cork; DD: Allan K. Foster. Music orchestrated by Emil Gerstenberger.

    Drei arme kleine Mädels, Berlin 1927. Book & lyrics by Herman Feiner & Bruno Hardt-Warden.

    Three Little Girls, Shubert Theatre, NY, 14 Aug. 1930 (with Charles Hedley as Hendrik Norgard, & Natalie Hall as Beate-Marie, 104 perfs). Book by Marie Armstrong Hecht & Gertrude Purcell, lyrics by Harry B. Smith. P: the Shuberts; SD: J.J. Shubert; MD: Louis Kroll.

    Korngold, Erich Wolfgang, b. Brünn (now Brno), 29 May 1897, d. Hollywood, 29 Nov. 1957, & Julius Bittner, b. Vienna, 9 Apr. 1874, d. Vienna, 9 Jan. 1939.

    Walzer aus Wien, Stadttheater Vienna, 30 Oct. 1930. Book & lyrics by A.M. Willner, Heinz Reichert & Ernst Marischka; music adapted from J. Strauss Sr & Jr by Erich Korngold & Julius Bittner.

    Waltzes from Vienna, Alhambra Theatre, London, 17 Aug. 1931 (with Evelyn Herbert as Therese Ebenseder & Robert Halliday as Strauss Jr, 607 perfs). Book & lyrics by Desmond Carter & Caswell Garth, in addition to Korngold & Bittner, music arr. by G.H. Clutsam & Herbert Griffiths. Presenter: Oswald Stoll; P & Lighting: Howard Short; SD: Stanley Bell;

    MD: anon; DD: Albertina Rasch. Sets: E. Delaney & J. Brun-skill. Costume design: Doris Zinkeisen. Very successful revival in 1970 as The Great Waltz, Drury Lane (605 perfs).

    The Great Waltz, Center Theatre, New York, 22 Sep. 1934 (298 perfs). Revised book by Moss Hart, lyrics by Desmond Carter, music arr. Frank Tours, & Robert Russell Bennett. P: Max Gordon; SD (& lighting): Hassard Short; MD: Frank Tours; DD: Albertina Rasch (as in London). Sets: Albert Johnson; Costumes: Doris Zinkeisen (as in London) & Irene Sharaff. Revived at same theatre in 5 Aug. 1935 (49 perfs).

    Helen! Adelphi Theatre, London, 30 Jan. 1932 (with Evelyn Laye as Helen, George Robey as Menelaus, & Bruce Carfax as Paris, 193 perf). Korngold was arranger of this updated version of Offenbach La Belle Hélène. Book & lyrics by A.P. Herbert. P: Charles B. Cochran; SD: Max Reinhardt; MD: E.W. Korngold.

    Kreisler, Fritz, b. Vienna, 2 Feb. 1875, d. New York, 29 Jan. 1962.

    Apple Blossoms, Globe Theatre, New York, 7 Oct. 1919 (Wilda Bennett as Nancy & John Charles Thomas as Philip, 256 perfs). Book & lyrics by William Le Baron, additional music by Victor Jacobi. [Pub. T.B. Harms, & Francis, Day & Hunter, 1920.] P: Charles Dillingham; SD: Fred G. Latham & Edward Royce; MD: William Daly. Kreisler reused music from this operetta, as well as music from his violin pieces, in Sissi, Vienna, 23 Dec. 1932; libretto by Ernst & Hubert Marischka, after a play by Ernst Decsey & Gustav Holm.

    Künneke, Eduard, b. Emmerich am Rhein, 27 Jan. 1885, d. Berlin, 27 Oct. 1953.

    Wenn Liebe erwacht, Theater am Nollendorfplatz, Berlin, 3 Sep. 1920. Book by Herman Haller, lyrics by Rideamus (Fritz Oliven), after the comedy Renaissance (1896) by Franz von Schönthan & Franz Koppel-Ellfeld. (The action was moved from the Medici period to the 19th century.)

    Love’s Awakening, Empire Theatre, London, 19 Apr. 1922 (with Juliette Autran as the Countess & Edouard Lestan as Lorenzo, 37 perfs). Book & lyrics by Adrian Ross. Closed 25 May 1922. P: Edward Laurillard. SD: Charles Ross; MD: Jacques Heuval; DD: Jack Haskell.

    Der Vetter aus Dingsda, Theater am Nollendorfplatz, Berlin, 15 April 1921 (with Lori Leux as Julia, & Johannes Müller as the stranger). Book by Herman Haller, lyrics by Rideamus (Fritz Oliven), after Max Kempner-Hochstädt’s comedy.

    Caroline, Ambassador Theatre, New York, 31 January 1923 (with Tessa Kosta as Caroline, & J. Harold Murray as Captain Robert Langdon, 151 perfs). Book & lyrics by Harry B. Smith. P: the Shuberts; SD: Fred G. Latham & J.J. Shubert; MD: Fred Hoff; DD: Frank M. Gillespie.

    The Cousin from Nowhere, Prince’s Theatre, London, 24 February 1923 (with Helen Gilliland as Julia & Walter Williams as the Stranger, 106 perfs). Book by Fred Thompson, lyrics by Adrian Ross, Robert C. Tharp, & Douglas Furber. P: Edward Laurillard; SD: Felix Edwardes; MD: J.A. de Orellana; DD: Jack Buchanan. Performance given at Grand Theatre, Blackpool, 26 Mar. 1923.

    Lover’s Lane, London 1923.[1] Book & lyrics by Arthur Wimperis & Harry M. Vernon.

     

    The Love Song, Century Theatre, New York, 13 Jan. 1925 (with Allan Pior as Offenbach, 157 perfs). Broadway musical based on Offenbach’s life & music. Music by Offenbach, arranged by Künneke, plus some original music by Künneke. Lyrics by Harry B. Smith (original Hungarian libretto by Michael Nador & Eugene Ferago; German adaptation James Klein & Carl Bretschneider). P: the Shuberts; SD: Fred G. Latham & J.J. Shubert; MD: Alfred Goodman.

    [1] Date given in the Künneke article in MGG for the London production. I have been unable to trace this performance.

    Mayflowers, Forrest Theatre, New York, 24 Nov. 1925 (with Ivy Sawyer as Elsie Dover & Joseph Santley as Billy Ballard, 81 perfs). Book & lyrics by Clifford Grey (based on the play Not So Long Ago by Arthur Richman), additional music by J. Fred Coots & Frank E. Tours. Broadway musical. P: the Shuberts; SD: William J. Wilson & Joseph Santley; MD: Frank Cork; DD: Earl Lindsay.

    Riki-Tiki, Gaiety Theatre, London, 16 Apr. 1926 (with Gladys Moncrieff as Riki-Tiki, 18 perfs). Book & lyrics by Leslie Stiles. SD: A.H. Majilton; MD: Ernest Irving.

    Lady Hamilton, Schauspielhaus, Breslau (now Wrocław), 25 Sep. 1926 (with Anny Ahlers in title role). Book & lyrics by Richard Bars & Leopold Jacobson. MD Franz Marszalek.

    The Song of the Sea, His Majesty’s, London, 6 Sep. 1928 (with Lilian Davies as Nancy, Stanley Holloway as Lieut. Richard Manners, A.W. Baskcomb as Peter Pettigrew, Mary Leigh as Kitty & Claude Hulbert as Bob Blake, 155 perfs). Book & lyrics by Arthur Wimperis & Lauri Wylie. P: Jack Hulbert; SD: Alfred Bellew; MD: Percy Fletcher.

    Lehár, Franz, b. Komorn (split into dual towns Komárom, Hungary, & Komárno, Slovakia, in 1920) 30 Apr. 1870, d. Bad Ischl, 24 Oct. 1948.

    Die lustige Witwe, Theater an der Wein, Vienna, 28 Dec. 1905 (with Mizzi Günther as Hanna, & Louis Treumann as Danilo), transferred to Raimundtheater then Volksoper (483 perfs in all). Book & lyrics by Victor Léon & Leo Stein from L’Attaché d’Ambassade (comédie en trois actes, Théatre du Vaudeville, Paris, 1861) by Henri Meilhac (1831–97). Berliner Theater, Berlin, 1 May 1906 (with Marie Ottmann as Hanna, & Gustav Matzner as Danilo). Die lustige Witwe, Berlin Neufassung, 1928 (Großes Schauspielhaus).

    The Merry Widow, Daly’s Theatre, London, 8 Jun. 1907 to 31 Jul. 1909 (with Lily Elsie as Sonia [Hanna], Joseph Coyne as Danilo, & Robert Evett as Camille de Rosillon, 778 perfs). Book & lyrics by Basil Hood & Adrian Ross. P: George Edwardes; SD: J.A.E. Malone; MD: Barter Johns; DD: Fred Farren. Costumes by Lucile & others. Two new numbers added by Lehár. Revived Daly’s. 19 May 1923 (with Evelyn Laye as Sonia, 238 perfs); revived at Lyceum, 28 May 1924 (with Adrienne Brune & others as Sonia, 216 perfs); revived London Hippodrome 29 Sep. 1932 (with Helen Gilliland as Sonia, 85 perfs). Revival His Majesty’s, 4 Mar. 1943 (302 perfs), Coliseum, 19 Sep. 1944 (107 perfs).

    New Amsterdam Theatre, New York, 21 Oct. 1907, moving to Aerial Gardens (Jul. & Aug. 1908) then back to New Amsterdam (with Ethel Jackson as Sonia, & Donald Brian as Danilo, 416 perfs in all). Brought to NY by Erlanger. P: Henry W. Savage; SD: George Marion; MD: Louis F. Gottschalk. Revivals: Knickerbocker Theatre, 5 Sep. 1921 (Lydia

    Lipkowska as Sonia, Reginald Pasch as Danilo, 56 perfs), P: Henry W. Savage; Jolson’s 59th Street Theatre, 2 Dec. 1929 (16 perfs); Erlanger’s Theatre, 7 Sep. 1931 (with Alice McKenzie as Sonia, Donald Brian as Danilo, 32 perfs); Majestic Theatre, 4 Aug. 1943 (322 perfs).

    The Merry Widow Burlesque, Weber’s Music Hall, New York, 2 Jan. 1908 (156 perfs). Joe Weber’s burlesque of The Merry Widow (by arrangement with Henry W. Savage, & using Lehár’s music) with Lulu Glaser as Fonia from Farsovia [instead of Sonia from Marsovia], Joe Weber as Disch [instead of Nisch the messenger], and Bessie Clayton (advertised as “the world’s greatest dancer”); book by George V. Hobart.

    Mitislaw der Moderne, Die Hölle (Cabaret in the Theater an der Wien basement), Vienna, 5 Jan. 1907 (with Emil Richter-Roland as Mitislaw, & Mela Mars as Amaranth). Book & lyrics by Fritz Grünbaum & Robert Bodanzky.

    Mitislaw, or The Love Match, London Hippodrome, 29 Nov. 1909 (with Maurice Farkoa as Mitislaw, Zena Dare as Amaranth, Florence Wood as Tina, & John Le Hay as the Chancellor, 56 perfs).

    Der Graf von Luxemburg, Theater an der Wien, Vienna, 12 Nov. 1909 (with Otto Storm as René, & Annie von Ligety as Angèle). Book & lyrics by A.M. Willner & Robert Bodanzky. Neues Operettentheater am Schiffbauerdamm, Berlin, 23 Dec. 1909 (with Fritz Werner & Mizzi Wirth).

    The Count of Luxembourg, Daly’s Theatre, 20 May, 1911 (with Bertram Wallis as René, & Lily Elsie as Angèle, 339 perfs). Book & lyrics by Adrian Ross & Basil Hood. P: George Edwardes; SD: Edward Royce; MD: Franz Ziegler; DD: Jan Oy-Ray. Costume design: Comelli.

    The Count of Luxembourg, New Amsterdam Theatre, New York, 16 Sep. 1912 (with George L. Moore as René, & Ann Swinburne as Angèle, 120 perfs). Book by Glen MacDonough, lyrics remain those of Ross & Hood. P: Klaw & Erlanger; SD: Herbert Gresham; MD: Anton Heindl. Costume design: Comelli. Try-out at Tremont Theatre, Boston, 26 Aug. 1912. Revival Jolson’s 59th Street Theatre, 17 Feb. 1930 (16 perfs).

    Zigeunerliebe, Carltheater, Vienna, 8 Jan. 1910 (with Greta Holm as Zorika, & Willi Strehl as Józsi). Book & lyrics by A.M. Willner & Robert Bodanzky. Metropol-Theater [now the Komische Oper], Berlin, 12 Feb. 1911 (with Martha Winternitz-Dorda & Jean Nadolovitch).

    Gypsy Love, Globe Theatre, New York, 17 Oct. 1911 (with Phyllis Partington [replacing Marguerite Sylva] & Albert Albro, 31 perfs). Book & lyrics by Harry B. Smith & Robert B. Smith. P: A.H. Woods; SD: George Marion; MD: Louis F. Gottschalk. At the first performance, Sylva’s voice began to fail towards the close of Act 1, so her understudy, Partington, took over.

    Gipsy Love, Daly’s Theatre, London, 1 Jun. 1912 (with Sári Petráss as Ilona [her London debut], Robert Michaelis as Jozsi, & Gertie Millar as Lady Babby, 299 perfs). Version by Basil Hood & Adrian Ross, with additional numbers by Lehár. P: George Edwardes; SD: Edward Royce; MD: Franz Ziegler (Lehár conducted the premiere). Costume design: Comelli.

    Eva, Theater an der Wien, 24 Nov. 1911. Book & lyrics by Alfred Maria Willner & Robert Bodanzky.

    Eva, New Amsterdam Theatre, New York, 30 Dec. 1912 (24 perfs). Book & lyrics by Glen MacDonough. P: Klaw & Erlanger; SD: Herbert Gresham; MD: Hugo Riesenfeld; DD: Julian Mitchell.

    Der Mann mit den drei Frauen, Theater an der Wien, 21 Jan. 1908 (82 perfs). Book & lyrics by Julius Bauer, after Alexandre Bisson, Le Contrôlleur des wagon-lits.

    The Man with Three Wives, Weber & Fields’ Music Hall, New York, 23 Jan. 1913 (52 perfs). Book by Agnes Morgan, Paul M. Potter, & Harold Atteridge, lyrics by Atteridge & Potter. P: the Shuberts (Lee & J.J.); SD: William J. Wilson & J.C. Huffman; MD: Oscar Radin.

    Das Fürstenkind, Johann Strauß-Theater, Vienna, 7 Oct.1909. Book & lyrics by Victor Léon after Edmond About, Le Roi des Montagnes.

    Maids of Athens, New Amsterdam Theatre, New York, 18 Mar. 1914 (with Leila Hughes & Elbert Fretwell, 22 perfs). Book & lyrics by Carolyn Wells, interpolated songs by Charles J. Anditzer, Frederick Norton, & others. P: Henry W. Savage; SD: George Marion; MD: John McGhie.

    Revised as Der Fürst der Berge (Berlin, 1932).

    Endlich Allein, Theater an der Wien, 10 Feb. 1914. Book & lyrics by Robert Bodanzky & A.M. Willner.

    Alone at Last, Shubert Theatre, New York, 19 Oct. 1915 (Marguerite Namara as the American heiress Dolly Cloverdale, John Charles Thomas as Baron Franz von Hansen, 180 perfs). Book & lyrics by Edgar Smith & Joseph Herber. Additional music by Gaetano Merola, & additional lyrics by Matthew Woodward. P: the Shuberts; SD: J.H. Benrimo; MD: Gaetano Merola; DD: Allan K. Foster.

    Revised as Schön ist die Welt, Metropol-Theater [now the Komische Oper], Berlin, 3 Dec. 1930 (book & lyrics by Ludwig Herzer & Fritz Löhner). English version by Adam Carstairs, 1931.

    Der Sterngucker, Theater in der Josefstadt, 14 Jan. 1916 (Louis Teumann as Franz Höfer, the stargazer, & Louise Kartousch). Book & lyrics by Fritz Löhner-Beda & A.M. Willner.

    The Star Gazer, Plymouth Theatre (renamed Gerald Schoenfeld Theatre in 2005), New York, 26 Nov. 1917 (8 perfs). Book by Cosmo Hamilton, lyrics by Matthew C. Woodward. P: the Shuberts; SD: Edward P. Temple; MD: Gaetano Merola. Hit song “If You Only Knew” by Neville Fleeson & Albert Von Tilzer.

    See Der Libellentanz, below.

    Wo die Lerche singt, Theater an der Wien, 27 Mar. 1918. Book & lyrics by A.M. Willner & Heinz Reichert. The only Lehár operetta to be premiered in Budapest, as A Pacsirta, Király Szinház, 1 Jan. 1918.

    Manhattan Opera House, 27 Dec. 1920 (5 perfs). Given in German. SD: Kurt Gordon; MD: Ernst Knoch.

    Die blaue Mazur, Theater an der Wien, 28 May 1920; book & lyrics by Leo Stein & Bela Jenbach.

    The Blue Mazurka, Daly’s, London, 19 Feb. 1927 (with Gladys Moncrieff as Blanca) & Bertram Wallis as Clement, 138 perfs). Book by Monckton Hoffe, lyrics by Harry Graham. P: Robert Courtneidge; SD: Fred A. Leslie; MD: Arthur Wood. Try-out at Prince’s, Manchester, late 1926.

    Frasquita, Theater an der Wien, Vienna, 12 May 1922 (195 perfs). Book & lyrics by A.M. Willner & Heinz Reichert, after La Femme et le pantin by Pierre Louys.

    Frasquita (A Gipsy Maid), Prince’s Theatre, London, 23 Apr. 1925 (José Collins as Frasquita, Thorpe Rates as Armand, 35 perfs). Book & lyrics by Reginald Arkell & Fred de Gresac. Producer: Oscar Ashe; MD Frederick Grey. Try-out at Lyceum Theatre, Edinburgh, 24 Dec. 1924.

    La danza delle libellule, Milan, Teatro Lirico, 27 Sep. 1922; music originally to Der Sterngucker; given new libretto by Carlo Lombardo.

    Der Libellentanz (Die drei Grazien), Stadttheater, Vienna, 1 Apr. 1923; German version by A.M. Willner.

    The Three Graces, Empire Theatre, London, 26 Jan. 1924 (Thorpe Bates as the Duke, Winifred Barnes as Cliquot, 121 perfs). Book & lyrics by Ben Travers. P: J.L. Sacks; SD: Thomas M. Reynolds; MD: Jacques Heuval. Scenery: Joe & Phil Harker; costumes by Comelli.

    Der Sterngucker was revised again as Gigolette, Milan, Teatro Lirico, 30 Oct. 1926 (libretto by G. Fortzano); given at Stadttheater, Vienna, 1926, with book & lyrics by Fritz Löhner & A.M. Willner.

    Clo-Clo, Bürgertheater, Vienna, 8 Mar. 1924 (with Louise Kartouche). Book & lyrics by Bela Jenbach. Revised version, Johann Strauss Theater, 4 Sep. 1924.

    Shaftesbury Theatre, London, 9 Jun. 1925 (with Cicely Debenham as Clo-Clo & Claude Bailey as Maxime, 95 perfs). Book & lyrics by Douglas Furber, with additional songs by Max Darewski. P: C.A. Mills & T.F. Dawe; MD: Max Darewski; DD: Max Rivers.

    Paganini, Johann-Strauß-Theater, Vienna, 30 Oct. 1925 (with Carl Clewing as Paganini, & Emma Kosáry as Anna). Book & lyrics by Paul Knepler & Béla Jenbach. Deutsches Künstlertheater, Berlin, 30 Jan. 1926 (with Richard Tauber & Vera Schwarz).

    Lyceum Theatre, London, 20 May 1937 (with Richard Tauber as Paganini, Evelyn Laye as Elisa, & Bertram Wallis as the Duke, 59 perfs). Book & lyrics by A.P. Herbert & Reginald Arkell. P: Charles B. Cochran; SD: Ernest W. Parr; MD: Frank Collinson.

    No New York production.

    Friederike, Metropol-Theater [now the Komische Oper], Berlin, 10 Oct. 1928 (with Richard Tauber as Goethe, & Käthe Dorsch as Friederike). Book & lyrics by Ludwig Herzer & Fritz Löhner-Beda.

    Frederica, Palace Theatre, London, 9 Sep. 1930 (with Lea Seidl as Frederica & Joseph Hislop as Goethe, 110 perfs). Book & lyrics by Adrian Ross & Harry S. Pepper. P: Felix Edwards; SD: Cyril Smith; MD: Jacques Heuval. Try-out King’s Theatre, Glasgow, 1 Sep. 1930.

    Frederika, Imperial Theatre, New York, 4 Feb. 1937 (with Dennis King as Goethe, & Helen Gleason as Frederika, 95 perfs). Book & lyrics by Edward Eliscu. Try-out in Boston, 26 Dec. 1936. P: the Shuberts; SD: Hassard Short; MD: Hilding Anderson; DD: Chester Hale. Music orchestrated by Hilding Anderson & William Challis.

    Das Land des Lächelns, Metropol-Theater [now the Komische Oper], Berlin, 10 Oct. 1929 (with Richard Tauber as Sou-Chong, & Vera Schwarz as Lisa). Book & lyrics by Ludwig Herzer & Fritz Löhner, a much-revised version of Victor Léon’s libretto for Der gelbe Jacke, Theater an der Wien, Vienna, 9 Feb. 1923.

    The Land of Smiles, Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, London, 8 May 1931 (with Richard Tauber as Sou Chong & Renée Brullard as Lisa, 72 perfs). Book & lyrics by Harry Graham. Advertised as a “musical play.” P: Stanley H. Scott. SD: William Abingdon; MD: Ernest Irving. Revived at Dominion, 31 May 1932 (with Tauber, 20 perfs).

    Yours Is My Heart, Shubert Theatre, New York, 5 Sep. 1946 (with Richard Tauber, 36 perfs). Book & lyrics by Harry Graham, Ira Cobb, & Karl Farkas, music arranged by Felix Guenther. Included songs by Paul Durant. P: Arthur Spitz; SD: Theodore Bache; MD: George Schick; DD: Henry Shwarze. Title refers to the hit song “Dein ist mein ganzes Herz.” Earlier US performance of The Land of Smiles at Shubert Theatre, Boston, 26 Dec. 1932.

    Lincke, Carl Emil Paul, b. Berlin, 7 Nov. 1866, d. Berlin, 4 Sep. 1946.

    Frau Luna, Apollo Theater, Berlin, 31 December, 1899. Originally one act (in four scenes). Neue Fassung in two acts, Berlin 1922 (including an aerial ballet). Book & lyrics by Heinrich Bolton-Bäckers; suggested by Offenbach’s Un voyage dans la lune.

    Castles in the Air, Scala Theatre, London, 11 Apr. 1911 (with Cameron Carr, Gwilym Evans, Ivy Moore, & Sybil Tancredi, 65 perfs). Book & lyrics by Mrs Caley Robinson & Adrian Ross. P: Sidney Watson; SD: Louis Hillier; MD: not known.

    Ein Abenteuer im Harem, Berlin, 1896; Heinrich Bolten-Baeckers. One act.

    The H’arum Lily, Pavilion Music Hall, London, 9 Dec. 1912.

    Millöcker, Carl (1842–99), Gräfin Dubarry (1879) adapted by Theo Mackeben, b. Preußisch Stargard, 5 Jan. 1897, d. Berlin, 10 Jan. 1953.

    Die Dubarry, Admiralspalast, Berlin, 14 Aug. 1931 (with Gitta Alpár as Countess Dubarry). New book & lyrics by Paul Knepler & Ignaz Michael Welleminsky. (Original libretto by F. Zell & Richard Genee.) Music from other Millöcker operettas is included. The song “Ich schenk mein Herz” (“I Give My Heart”) is Mackeben’s.

    The Dubarry, His Majesty’s, London, 14 Apr. 1932 (with Anny Ahlers as Jeanne & Heddle Nash as René, 398 perfs). Book by Desmond Carter & Rowland Leigh, lyrics by Rowland Leigh. P: Stanley Scott; SD: Felix Edwardes & Arthur Hammond; MD: Ernest Irving; DD: Anton Dolin & Fred A. Leslie.

    The DuBarry, George M. Cohan Theatre, New York, 22 Nov. 1932 (with Grace Moore as Jeanne & Howard Marsh as René, 87 perfs). Same version as in London. P: Morris Green & Tillie Leblang; SD: A.O. Huhn; MD: Gustave Salzer.; DD: Dorothea Berke. Scene & costume design: Vincente Minnelli.

    Nedbal, Oskar, b. Tábor, Bohemia (now Czech Republic) 26 Mar. 1874, d. Agram (Zagreb), 24 Dec. 1930.

    Polenblut, Carltheater, Vienna, 25 Oct. 1913. Book & lyrics by Leo Stein.

    The Peasant Girl, 44th Street Theatre, New York, 2 Mar. 1915 (111 perfs). Book by Edgar Smith, lyrics by Herbert Reynolds & Harold Atteridge; additional music by Rudolf Friml & Clifton Crawford; additional lyrics by Clifton Crawford. P: the Shuberts; SD: J.C. Huffman & J.H. Benrimo; MD: Gaetano Merola; DD: Jack Mason.

    Reinhardt, Heinrich, b. Pressburg [Bratislava], 13 Apr. 1865, d. Vienna, 31 Jan. 1922.

    Das süsse Mädel, Carltheater, Vienna, 25 Oct. 1901. Book & lyrics by Alexander Landesberg & Leo Stein.

    The Sweet Girl, Princess of Wales’s Theatre, Kennington, 26 Jul. 1902 (NB not Prince of Wales’s Theatre, West End). Book & lyrics by E. Demain Grange; additional music by Ernest Irving.

    Die Sprudelfee, Raimund-Theater, Vienna, 23 Jan. 1909. Book & lyrics by Alfred Maria Willner & Heinrich Wilhelm.

    The Spring Maid, Liberty Theatre, New York, 26 Dec. 1910, moving to New Amsterdam, 20 Jan. 1913 (208 perfs in all). Book & lyrics by Harry B. Smith & Robert B. Smith. P: Louis F. Werber & Mark A. Luescher; SD: George Marion: MD: Max Bendix.

    The Spring Maid, Whitney Theatre, Strand, London, 30 Sep. 1911 (with Courtice Pounds as Prince Nepomuk, & Marise Fairy as Princess Bozena, 63 perfs). P: F.C. Whitney. SD: E.J. Caldwell. MD ?

    Die süßen Grisetten, Vienna, 1 Dec. 1907; Julius Wilhelm. One act.

    The Daring of Diane, London Pavilion, 1914, version by Alfred Anderson.

    Napoleon und die Frauen, Volksoper, Vienna, 1 May 1912.

    The Purple Road, Liberty Theatre, New York, 7 Apr. 1913, moving to Casino Theatre, 16 Jun. 1913 (136 perfs in all). Book & lyrics by Fred De Grésac & William Carey Duncan; additional music by William Frederick Peters. P: Joseph M. Gaites; SD: Edward P. Temple & George Marion; MD: Gustave Salzer.

    Reznicek, Emil Nikolaus (Joseph) Freiherr von, b. Vienna, 4 May 1860, d. Berlin, 2 Aug. 1945.

    Die wunderlichen Geschichten des Kapellmeiters Kreisler, Berlin, 1922; melodrama by C. Meinhard & R. Bernauer.

    Johannes Kreisler, Apollo Theatre, New York, 20 Dec. 1922 (Jacob Ben-Ami as Kreisler, 65 perfs). Book & lyrics by Louis N. Parker. Produced by the Selwyns.

    Sirmay (Szirmai), Albert

    Filmzauber, Berliner Theater, Berlin, 19 Oct. 1912; music by Kollo, Willy Bredschneider, & Albert Sirmay. Book & lyrics by Rudolf Bernauer & Rudolph Schanzer.

    The Girl on the Film, Gaiety, London, 5 Apr. 1913 (with George Grossmith, Jr as Max Daly, Emmy Wehlan as “Freddy,” & Connie Ediss as Euphemia Knox, 232 perfs). Book by James T. Tanner, lyrics by Adrian Ross. Additional music by Melville J. Gideon. P: George Edwardes; MD: George W. Byng. Costume Design: Comelli.

    44th Street Theatre, New York, 29 Dec. 1913 (64 perfs); same version as London. P: the Shuberts (Lee & J.J.). SD: Harry B. Burcher; MD: Leonard Hornsbee. Costume Design: Comelli.

    The Bamboula, His Majesty’s, London, 26 Mar. 1925 (77 perfs). Book & lyrics by H.M. Vernon & Guy Bolton, lyrics by Douglas Furber & Irving Caesar. Additional music by Harry Rosenthal. P: L. Morgan; SD: William J. Wilson; MD: ?

    Lady Mary, Daly’s, London, 23 Feb. 1928 (with Helen Gilliland as Lady Mary, 181 perfs). Book & lyrics by Frederick Lonsdale & John Hastings Turner. Additional music by Philip Charig. P: Lee Ephraim & Jack Buchanan; SD: David Miller; MD: Charles Prentice.

    Ripples, New Amsterdam, New York, 11 Feb. 1930 (55 perfs). Book by William McGuire, lyrics by Irving Caesar & Graham John. P: Charles Dillingham; SD: William Anthony McGuire; MD: Gus Salzer; DD: William Holbrook. Scene design by Joseph Urban.

    Alexandra, Budapest, 1925. Libretto by Franz Martos.

    Alexandra, Johann Strauss Theater, Vienna, 11 May 1926. Book & lyrics by P. Frank &P. Herz.

    Princess Charming, Palace, London, 21 Oct. 1926 (with Alice Delysia & W.H. Berry, 361 perfs). Book by Arthur Wimperis and Lauri Wylie, lyrics by Arthur Wimperis. P: Herbert Clayton & Jack Waller; SD: William Mollison; MD: ?

    Princess Charming, Imperial, New York, 13 Oct. 1930 (with Evelyn Herbert & Robert Halliday, 56 perfs). Book by Jack Donahue, lyrics by Arthur Swanstrom. P: Bobby Connolly & Arthur Swanstrom; SD: Edward Clarke Lilley & Bobby Connolly; MD: Alfred Goodman; DD: Albertina Rasch.

    Film adaptation in 1934.

    Stolz, Robert, b. Graz, 25 Aug. 1880, d. Berlin, 27 Jun. 1975.

    Der Tanz ins Glück, Raimundtheater, Vienna, 28 Oct. 1920 (with Robert Nästlberger & Christl Mardayn). Book & lyrics by Robert Bodanzky & Bruno Hardt-Warden.

    Whirled into Happiness, Lyric Theatre, London, 18 May 1922 (with Lily St. John as Florence, Mai Bacon as Delphine, & Billy Merson as Matthew Platt, 245 perfs). Book & lyrics by Harry Graham. P: Cecil Paget; SD: Fred J. Blackman; MD: Arthur Wood; DD: A.H. Majilton. Scenic Design: Terraine, Harker; Costume Design: Comelli. Produced at the Lyric by James White because Lady of the Rose running at Daly’s.

    Sky High, Shubert Theatre, 3 Feb. 1925 (with Joyce Barbour as Florence, Vanessi as Delphine, & Willie Howard as Sammie Myers, 217 perfs). Book & lyrics by Harold Atteridge & Harry Graham. Additional music by Alfred Goodman, Carlton Kelsey, & Maurie Rubens. Additional lyrics by Clifford Grey; additional songs by Hal Dyson & Irving Weill. P: the Shuberts; SD: Fred G. Latham & Alexander Leftwich; MD: Carlton Kelsey; DD: Seymour Felix. Scenic design by Watson Barratt; Costume design by Paul Arlington & Vanity Fair Costumes.

    Mädi, Berliner Theater, Berlin, 1 Apr. 1923. Book & lyrics by Alfred Grünwald & Leo Stein.

    Also given in German at the Yorkville Theatre, New York, 1925-26 season (21 perfs).

    The Blue Train, Prince of Wales’s Theatre, London, 10 May 1927 (with Bobby Howes as Freddy Royce, & Lily Elsie as Eileen Mayne, 126 perfs). Book by Reginald Arkell & Dion Titheradge, lyrics by Reginald Arkell. P: Philip Ridgeway; SD: Jack Hulbert; MD: Charles Prentice. Try-out at King’s Theatre, Southsea, 14 Mar. 1927.

    Wenn die kleinen Veilchen blühen, Princess Theatre, The Hague, 1 Apr. 1932. Book & lyrics by Bruno Hardt-Warden.

    Wild Violets, Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, 31 Oct. 1932 (with Jerry Verno as Hans, & Charlotte Greenwood [American, her debut] as Augusta, 290 perfs). Book & lyrics by Hassard Short, Desmond Carter, & Reginald Purdell. Producer, scene design & lighting: Hassard Short; SD: William Abingdon; MD: Charles Prentice; DD: Albertina Rasch. Revival at Stoll Theatre, 11 Feb. 1950 (121 perfs).

    Venus in Seide, Stadttheater, Zurich, 10 Dec. 1932. Book & lyrics by Alfred Grünwald & Ludwig Herzer.

    Venus in Silk, try-out in Pittsburgh, 7 Oct. 1935. Lyrics by Lester O’Keefe. MD: George Hirst. Not produced on Broadway.

    Produced in UK in 1937 (with Carl Brisson & Helen Gilliland), but not in West End.

    Rise and Shine, Drury Lane, 7 May 1936 (44 perfs). Book & lyrics by Harry Graham & Desmond Carter (after Arnold & Gilbert). SD: William Abingdon; MD & musical arranger: Charles Prentice.

    Night of Love, Hudson Theatre, New York, 7 Jan. 1941 (7 perfs). Book & lyrics by Rowland Leigh (based on the play Tonight or Never by Lili Hatvany). P: the Shuberts; SD: Barrie O’Daniels; MD: Joseph Littau.

    Mr Strauss Goes to Boston, New Century Theatre, New York, 6 Sep. 1945 (12 perfs). Book by Leonard L. Levinson, lyrics by Robert Sour. P: Felix Brentano; SD: Felix Brentano; MD: Robert Stolz; DD: George Balanchine. Music orchestrated by George Lessner. Try-out Shubert Theatre, Boston, 13 Aug. 1945.

    Rainbow Square, Stoll Theatre, London, 21 Sep. 1951 (146 perfs). Book & lyrics by Guy Bolton & Harold Purcell. P: Prince Littler; SD: Robert Nesbitt & Max Colburn; MD: Mark Lubbock; DD: Hazel Gee.

    Joie de vivre, London, 1960. Book & lyrics by Paul Dehn & Terence Rattigan (after the latter’s French Without Tears).

    Straus, Oscar Nathan, b. Leopoldstadt, Vienna, 6 Mar. 1870, d. Bad Ischl, 11 Jan. 1954.

    Ein Walzertraum, Carltheater, Vienna, 2 Mar. 1907 (with Mizzi Zwerenz as Franzi, & Fritz Werner as Niki). Book by Leopold Jacobson, lyrics by Felix Dörmann; adapted from “Nux, der Prinzgemahl,” a story in Hans Müller’s Das Buch der Abenteuer, 1905. Theater des Westens, Berlin, 21 Dec. 1907.

    A Waltz Dream, Hicks’s Theatre [it became the Globe, & is now the Gielgud], London, 28 Mar. 1908 (with Gertie Millar as Franzi, & Robert Evett as Lieutenant Niki, 146 perfs). Book & lyrics by Basil Hood & Adrian Ross. P: Charles Frohman; SD: J.A.E. Malone; MD: Oscar Straus; DD: Fred Farren. Revised version by Hood at Daly’s, 7 Jan. 1911 (106 perfs). P: George Edwardes; SD: Edward Royce, MD Hamish McCunn, Costume design Comelli. Revived Winter Garden 20 Dec. 1934 (29 perfs).

    A Waltz Dream, Broadway Theatre, New York, 27 Jan. 1908 (with Sophie Brandt as Franzi, & Edward Johnson as Lieutenant Niki, 111 perfs). Book & lyrics by Joseph W. Herbert, with other songs interpolated. P: the Inter-State Amusement Company; SD: Herbert Gresham; MD: Arthur Weld. Try-out at Chestnut Street Opera House, Philadelphia, 6 Jan. 1908.

    Given in German at Weber’s Theatre, New York, 25 Dec. 1911.

    Der tapfere Soldat, Theater an der Wien, Vienna, 14 Nov. 1908 (with Max Pallenberg as Popoff, & Greta Holm as Nadina, cond. Robert Stolz, 62 perfs). Book & lyrics by Rudolf Bernauer & Leopold Jacobson, after George Bernard Shaw’s Arms and the Man (1894). Theater des Westens, Berlin, 23 Dec. 1908.

    The Chocolate Soldier, Lyric Theatre, New York, 13 Sep. 1909 (with Thomas G. Richards as Bumerli, William Pruette as Colonel Popoff, & Ida Brooks Hunt as his daughter Nadina), moved to Herald Square Theatre then back to Lyric, then to Casino, 296 perfs in all). Book & lyrics by Stanislaus Stange. P: Fred C. Whitney; SD: Stanislaus Stange; MD: Mr de Novellis; DD: Al Holbrook. Try-out at the Lyric Theatre, Philadelphia, 6 Sep. 1909 (The Whitney Opera Company). Revived 1910 (8 perfs), Century Theatre, 12 Dec. 1921 (Donald Brian as Bumerli, 83 perfs), P: by Shuberts; Jolson’s 59th Street Theatre, 27 Jan. 1930 (25 perfs); Erlanger’s Theatre, 21 Sep. 1931 (Charles Purcell as Bummerli, Vivienne Segal as Nadina, 16 perfs); St James Theatre (formerly Erlanger’s), 2 May 1934 (Charles Purcell as Bummerli, Bernice Claire as Nadina, 13 perfs), P: Charles Purcell & Donald Brian; New Century Theatre, 12 Mar. 1947 (69 perfs). Shaw’s Arms and the Man had been performed at the Lyric during April–May, 1906.

    The Chocolate Soldier, Lyric Theatre, London, 10 Sep. 1910 (with John Dunsmure & Constance Drever, 500 perfs). Stanislaus Stange’s New York version. P: Fred C. Whitney; SD: Stanislaus Stange. MD: Jacques Heuvel; DD: Mlle Rosa Revival Lyric, 5 Sep. 1914 (Derek Oldham as Bumerli, Margaret Ismay as Nadina, 56 perfs; profits to go to Belgian Relief Fund); Shaftesbury, 31 Mar. 1932 (Horace Percival as Bumerli, & Anne Croft as Nadina, 20 perfs); Shaftesbury Theatre, 20 Aug. 1940 (23 perfs).

    The Dancing Viennese (Eine vom Ballett), 2-act operetta ballet. Book & lyrics by Julius Brammer & Alfred Grünwald.

    The Dancing Viennese, London Coliseum, given in German by a Viennese company (with Josefine Ritzinger) 3–29 Jun. 1912 (48 perfs), then in English 1–27 Jul. 1912 (with Constance Drever, 48 perfs). Gustav Werner, of the Viennese cast, remained & sang in English; Mme. Malvine Lobel acted in Yiddish.

    Die kleine Freudlin, Carltheater, Vienna, 20 Oct. 1911. Book & lyrics by Leo Stein & Alfred Maria Willner.

    My Little Friend, New Amsterdam Theatre, New York, 19 May 1913 (24 perfs). Book by Harry B. Smith, lyrics by Robert B. Smith. P: F.C. Whitney; SD: Herbert Gresham; MD: Antonio DeNovellis; DD: Joseph C. Smith.

    Love and Laughter, Lyric Theatre, London, 3 Sep. 1913 (with Bertram Wallis as Prince Carol & Yvonne Arnaud as Zara, 67 perfs). Book by Frederick Fenn & Arthur Wimperis; lyrics by Wimperis. P & SD: Philip Michael Faraday; MD: Jacques Heuvel.

    Die schöne Unbekannte, Carltheater, Vienna, 15 Jan. 1915. Book & lyrics by Leopold Jacobson & Leo Stein.

    My Lady’s Glove, Lyric Theatre, New York, 18 Jun. 1917 (with Vivienne Segal as Elaine, 16 perfs). Book & lyrics by Edgar Smith & Edward A. Paulton, additional music by Sigmund Romberg. P: the Shuberts; SD: J.C. Huffman & J.J. Shubert; MD: Gaetano Merola; DD: Allan K. Foster.

    Der letzte Walzer, Berliner Theater, Berlin, 12 Feb. 1920 (with Fritzi Massary as Vera). Book & lyrics by Julius Brammer & Alfred Grünwald. Theater an der Wien, 27 Oct. 1921 [after New York].

    The Last Waltz, Century Theatre, New York, 10 May 1921 (with Eleanor Painter as Vera Lizaveta & Walter Woolf as Lieutenant Jack Merrington, 185 perfs). Book & lyrics by Harold Atteridge & Edward Delaney Dunn, included interpolated music by Al Goodman, Ralph Benatzky, & others. P: the Shuberts; SD: J.C. Huffman & Frank Smithson; MD: Oscar Radin; DD: Allan K. Foster & Jack Mason.

    The Last Waltz, Gaiety Theatre, London, 7 Dec. 1922 (with José Collins as Vera Lisaveta, Alfred Wellesley as General Krasian, & Bertram Wallace as Prince Paul, 283 perfs). Book & lyrics by Reginald Arkell & Robert Evett. P: Charles Hawtrey; SD: Robert Evett; MD: Hubert Bath; DD: Espimosa. Try-out at Opera House, Manchester, 19 Aug. 1922.

    Die Perlen der Cleopatra, Theater an der Wien, 17 Nov. 1923 (with Fritzi Massary as Cleopatra, Richard Tauber as Silvius, & Max Pallenberg as Mark Antony, 61 perfs). Book & lyrics by Julius Brammer & Alfred Grünwald. Theater am Nollendorfplatz, Berlin, 22 Mar. 1924 (with Massar & Tauber, & Hans Albers as Antony).

    Cleopatra, Daly’s Theatre, London, 2 Jun. 1925 (with Evelyn Laye as Cleopatra, & Alec Fraser as Victorian, 111 perfs). Book by John Hastings Turner; lyrics by Harry Graham. Additional numbers by Arthur Wood. P: Oscar Asche; SD: Fred A. Leslie; MD: Arthur Wood. Costume design: Comelli.

    Riquette, Deutsches Künstlertheater, Berlin, Feb. 1925. Book & lyrics by Rudolf Schanzer & Ernst Welisch.

    Naughty Riquette, Cosmopolitan Theatre, New York, 13 Sep. 1926 (88 perfs). Book & lyrics by Harry B. Smith, but none of Oscar Straus’s music used? Music by Kendall Burgess, R.P. Weston, Alfred Goodman & Maurice Rubens; additional lyrics by Bert Lee. P: by Shuberts; SD: J.J. Shubert.

    Mein junger Herr, Raimund-Theater, Vienna, 23 Dec. 1910. Book & lyrics by Ferdinand Stollberg (Felix Salten).

    My Son John, Shaftesbury Theatre, 17 Nov. 1926 (255 perfs). Book & lyrics by Graham John, additional numbers by Vivian Ellis. P: M.E. Ltd; SD: David Miller & Billy Merson; MD: Leonard Hornsey; DD: Edward Dolly.

    Mariette; ou, comment on écrit l’histoire, Paris, Théâtre Edouard, 1 Oct. 1928 (with Sacha Guitry as Prince Lous-Napoleon, & Yvonne Printemps as Mariette). Book & lyrics by Sacha Guitry. German version, Marietta, (Sacha Guitry & Alfred Grünwald), Berlin, 1929.

    Mariette; ou, comment on écrit l’histoire, His Majesty’s Theatre, 3 Jun. 1929 (with Sacha Guitry as Prince Lous-Napoleon, & Yvonne Printemps as Mariette, 21 perfs). P: Daniel Mayer Co.; SD: Frank Collins; MD: Raoul Labis. Given in French.

    Eine Frau, die weiß, was sie will!, Metropol-Theater [now the Komische Oper], 1 Sep. 1932 (with Frizi Massary as Manon Cavallini). Book & lyrics by Alfred Grünwald, after Louis Verneuil’s Mademoiselle ma mère.

    Mother of Pearl, Gaiety Theatre, 27 Jan. 1933 (with Alice Delysia as Josephine Pavani, Sepha Treble as Pearl, & Frederick Ranalow as Richard Moon, 181 perfs). Book & lyrics by A.P. Herbert. P: Charles B. Cochran; SD: Frank Collins & Cecil King; MD: Hyam Greenbaum; DD: Buddy Bradley. Décor by Oliver Messel. Choreographer: Buddy Bradley. Try-out at Opera House, Manchester, 23 Dec. 1932.

    Die drei Wälzer, Stadttheater, Zurich, 5 Oct. 1935. Book & lyrics by Paul Knepler & Armin Robinson. Music by Johann Strauss, Sr, Johann Straus Jr, & Oscar Straus.

    Three Waltzes, Majestic Theatre, Broadway, 25 Dec. 1937 (with Kitty Carlisle as Marie Hiller, Charlotte Hiller & Franzi Hiller, & Michael Bartlett as the three Counts,122 perfs). Book & lyrics by Clare Kummer & Rowland Leigh. P: the Shuberts; SD: Hassard Short; MD: Harold Levey; DD: Chester Hale.

    Three Waltzes, Prince’s Theatre, London, 1 Mar. 1945 (with Evelyn Laye & Esmond Knight, 189 perfs). Book & lyrics by Robert MacDermot & Diana Morgan. P: Norman Marshall; SD: Frank Royde; MD: Herbert Griffiths.

    Tauber, Richard (born to Elisabeth Seifferth, his father was Richard Anton Tauber, but he was given his mother’s family name Denemy), b. Linz, 16 May 1891, d. London, 8 Jan. 1948.

    Old Chelsea, Prince’s Theatre, 17 Feb. 1943 (with Richard Tauber as Jacob Bray & Carol Lynne as Mary Fenton, 86 perfs). Book & lyrics by Walter Ellis, additional lyrics by Fred S. Tysh, additional numbers composed by Bernard Grün. P: Edward Stirling; SD: Mary Jordan; MD: Serge Krish.

    Weill, Kurt Julian, b. Dessau, 2 Mar. 1900, d. New York City, 3 Apr. 1950.

    Die Dreigroschenoper, Theater am Schiffbauerdamm, Berlin, 31 Aug. 1928 (with Harald Paulsen as Macheath, Roma Bahn as Polly, & Lotte Lenja as Jenny). Book & lyrics by Bertolt Brecht & Elisabeth Hauptmann (after John Gay’s play). Produced at Raimund-Theater, Vienna, 1929.

    The 3-Penny Opera, Empire Theatre, New York, 13 Apr. 1933 (with Robert Chisholm as Macheath & Steffi Duna as Polly, 12 perfs). Book & lyrics by Clifford Cochran & Jerrold Krimsky. P: John Krimsky & Gifford Cochran; SD: Francesco von Mendelssohn; MD: Macklin Marrow. Revived at off-Broadway Theatre de Lys, 1954 (over 2500 perfs), with new book and lyrics by Marc Blitzstein.

    First London performance was in the form of a live BBC broadcast in January 1935.

    First London theatre production was of the Blitzstein version of 1954, Royal Court Theatre, 9 Feb. 1956 (with Bill Owen as Macheath, & Maria Rémusat as Jenny, 167 perfs). P: Oscar Lewenstein; SD: Sam Wanamaker & Colin Graham; MD: Berthold Goldschmidt.

    Happy End, Theater am Schiffbauerdamm, Berlin, 2 Sep. 1929 (7 perfs). Book & lyrics by Dorothy Lane (really Bertolt Brecht & Elisabeth Hauptmann).

    Royal Court Theatre, London, 11 Mar. 1965.

    Martin Beck Theatre, New York, 7 May 1977 (75 perfs). Book & lyrics by Michael Feingold. P: Michael Harvey; SD: Patricia Birch; MD: Roland Gagnon.

    Aufstieg und Fall der Stadt Mahagonny, Neues Stadttheater, Leipzig, 9 Mar. 1930; Theater am Schiffbauerdamm, Berlin, Dec. 1931.

    Sadler’s Wells, London, 1963.

    Off-Broadway production, 1970. Metropolitan Opera House, 1979.

    Der Kuhhandel, begun in 1928, libretto by Robert Vambery. Incomplete when Weill left Paris for London in December 1934. (This work was labelled “Operette.”)

    A Kingdom for a Cow, Savoy Theatre, London, 28 Jun. 1935 (Webster Booth as Juan & Jacqueline Francell as Juanita, 18 perfs). Book by Reginald Arkell, lyrics by Desmond Carter. P: Ernest Matray & Felix Weissberger; SD: E. W. Parr; MD: ?

    Les sept péchés capitaux, Champs-Elysées, Paris, 30 Jun. 1933.

    Anna Anna (or, The Seven Capital Sins), Savoy, London, 30 Jun. 1933 (with Lotte Lenya & Tilly Losch, 9 perfs). P: Edward James; SD: Vladimir Dimitriev; DD: George Balanchine.

    Johnny Johnson, 44th Street Theatre, New York, 19 Nov. 1936 (68 perfs). Comedy by Paul Green, incidental music by Weill. P: the Group Theatre; SD: Lee Strasberg; MD: Lehman Engel.

    The Eternal Road, Manhattan Opera House, 7 Jan. 1937 (153 perfs), incidental music. Biblical spectacle Der Weg der Verheissung by Frank Werfel, adapted from Ludwig Lewisohn’s translation by William A. Drake. P: Meyer W. Weisgal & Crosby Gaige; SD: Max Reinhardt; MD: Isaac van Grove. Scene, costume, & lighting designer: Norman Bel Geddes. (1st German production was in 1999.)

    Knickerbocker Holiday, Ethel Barrymore Theatre, New York, 19 Oct. 1938, moved to 46th Street, 13 Feb. 1939 (168 perfs in all). Book & lyrics by Maxwell Anderson. P: the Playwrights’ Company; SD: Joshua Logan; MD: Maurice Abravanel; DD: Carl Randall & Edwin Denby.

    Lady in the Dark, Alvin Theatre, New York, 23 Jan. 1941 (with Gertrude Lawrence, 162 perfs), returned 2 Sep. 1941 (305 perfs). Book by Moss Hart, lyrics by Ira Gershwin. P: Sam H. Harris; SD: Hassard Short & Moss Hart; MD: Maurice Abravanel; SD: Hassard Short; DD: Albertina Rasch.

    One Touch of Venus, Imperial Theatre, New York, 7 Oct. 1943, moved to 46th Street, 26 Jan. 1944 (567 perfs in all). Book by S.J. Perelman & Ogden Nash, lyrics by Ogden Nash. P: Cheryl Crawford; SD: Elia Kazan & Agnes De Mille; MD: Maurice Abravanel.

    The Firebrand of Florence, Alvin Theatre, New York, 22 Mar. 1945 (43 perfs). Book by Edwin Justus Mayer & Ira Gershwin, lyrics by Ira Gershwin. P: Max Gordon; SD: John Murray Anderson; MD: Maurice Abravanel; DD: Catherine Littlefield.

    Street Scene, Adelphi Theatre, New York, 9 Jan. 1947 (148 perfs). Book by Elmer Rice (based on his play), lyrics by Langston Hughes. P: Dwight Deere Wiman & the Playwrights’ Company; SD: Charles Friedman & Anna Sokolow; MD: Maurice Abravanel.

    Love Life, 46th Street, New York, 7 Oct. 1948 (252 perfs). Book & lyrics by Alan Jay Lerner. Additional music by Irving Schlein. P: Cheryl Crawford; SD: Elia Kazan; MD: Joseph Littau; DD: Michael Kidd.

    Lost in the Stars, Music Box Theatre, New York, 30 Oct. 1949 (281 perfs). Book & lyrics by Maxwell Anderson, after Alan Paton’s novel Cry, the Beloved Country. P: the Playwrights’ Company; SD: Rouben Mamoulian; MD: Maurice Levine; DD: La Verne French.

    Winterberg, Robert, b. Vienna, 27 Feb. 1884, d. Töpchin (Mark Brandenburg), 22 Jun. 1930.

    Die schöne Schwedin, Vienna, 30 Jan. 1915. Book & lyrics by Julius Brammer & Alfred Grünwald.

    The Girl from Brazil, 44th Street Theatre, New York, 30 Aug. 1916, moving to Shubert, 9 Oct. 1916 (61 perfs in all). Book by Edgar Smith, lyrics by Matthew Woodward, additional music by Sigmund Romberg. Produced by the Shuberts; SD: J.H. Benrimo & J.J. Shubert; MD: Gaetano Merola; DD: Allen K. Foster.

    Die Dame in Rot, Berlin, 1911. Book & lyrics by Julius Brammer & Alfred Grünwald.

    The Lady in Red, Lyric Theatre, New York, 12 May 1919 (48 perfs). Book & lyrics by Anne Caldwell, additional lyrics by Irving Caesar & Lou Paley, additional songs by Walter Donaldson & George Gershwin. P: John P. Slocum; SD: Frank Smithson.

    Ziehrer, Carl Michael, b. Vienna, 2 May 1843, d. Vienna, 14 Nov. 1922.

    Die Landestreicher, Venedig in Wien (Sommertheater), Vienna, 26 Jul. 1899. Book & lyrics by Leopold Kremm & Carl Lindau.

    The Strollers, Knickerbocker Theatre, New York, 24 Jun. 1901. New music by Ludwig Englander for libretto by Harry B. Smith closely based on that of Kremm & Lindau for Ziehrer. Additional music by Fred Meyer, Leo Friedman, & others. P: George W. Lederer, Sam Nixon, & J. Fred Zimmerman; SD: A.M. Holbrook.

    Ein tolles Mädel, Walhalla-Theater, Wiesbaden, 24 Aug. 1907. Book & lyrics by Wilhelm Sterk, after Curt Kraatz & Heinrich Stobitzer.

    Mlle. Mischief, Lyric Theatre, New York, 28 Sep. 1908, moved to Casino, 30 Nov. (with Lulu Glaser, 96 perfs in all). Book & lyrics by Sydney Rosenfeld. P: Sam & Lee Shubert; SD: J.C. Huffman & Ned Wayburn. Try-out Philadelphia, 12 Sep. 1908.

    Liebeswalzer, Raimundtheater, Vienna, 24 Oct. 1908. Book & lyrics by Robert Bodansky & Alfred Grünbaum.

    The Kiss Waltz, Casino Theatre, New York, 18 Sep. 1911 (88 perfs). Book by Edgar Smith, lyrics by Matthew Woodward. Additional music by Jerome Kern & others. P: Sam & Lee Shubert; SD: J.C. Huffman & William J. Wildon; MD: Frank Tours; DD: Gus Sohike.

    English Adaptations of Operettas from the German Stage: London 1907–38

    (Ranked in order of the highest number of performances of the first production.)

    1. Lehár, The Merry Widow (Daly’s Theatre, 1907) 778
    2. Cuvillier, The Lilac Domino (Empire Theatre, 1918) 747
    3. Benatzky, White Horse Inn (London Coliseum, 1931) 651
    4. Berté/Schubert/Clutsam, Lilac Time (Lyric Theatre, 1922) 628
    5. Strauss Sr & Jr, Waltzes from Vienna (Alhambra Theatre, 1931) 607
    6. Gilbert, The Lady of the Rose, Daly’s Theatre, 1922) 515
    7. Gilbert, Katja, the Dancer (Gaiety, then Daly’s, 1925) 514
    8. Straus, The Chocolate Soldier (Lyric Theatre, 1910) 500
    9. Fall, Madame Pompadour (Daly’s Theatre, 1923) 461
    10. Benatzky and Strauss, Casanova (London Coliseum, 1932) 429
    11. Fall, The Dollar Princess (Daly’s Theatre, 1909) 428
    12. Mackeben and Millöcker, The Dubarry (His Majesty’s, 1932) 398
    13. Gilbert, The Girl in the Taxi (Lyric, 1912) 384
    14. Kálmán, Soldier Boy (Apollo, 1918) 374
    15. Fall, The Girl in the Train (Vaudeville Theatre, 1910) 339
    16. Lehár, The Count of Luxembourg (Daly’s Theatre, 1911) 339
    17. Lehár, Gipsy Love (Daly’s Theatre, 1912) 299
    18. Stolz, Wild Violets (Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, 1932) 290
    19. Straus, The Last Waltz (Gaiety Theatre, 1922) 283
    20. Gilbert, Yvonne (Daly’s, 1926) 281
    21. Fall, Princess Caprice (Shaftesbury Theatre, 1912) 265
    22. Straus, My Son John Shaftesbury Theatre, 1926) 255
    23. Hirsch, Toni (Shaftesbury Theatre, 1924) 248
    24. Stolz, Whirled into Happiness (Lyric Theatre, 1922) 245
    25. Kollo, The Girl on the Film (Gaiety, 1913) 232
    26. Kálmán, A Little Dutch Girl (Lyric Theatre, 1920) 215
    27. Kálmán, The Gipsy Princess (Prince of Wales’s Theatre, 1921) 212
    28. Straus, Mother of Pearl (Gaiety Theatre, 1933) 181
    29. Benatzky, The Apache (Palladium, 1927) 166
    30. Künneke, The Song of the Sea (His Majesty’s, 1928) 155
    31. Straus, A Waltz Dream (Hick’s Theatre, 1908) 146
    32. Abraham, Ball at the Savoy (Drury Lane, 1933) 146
    33. Lehár, The Blue Mazurka (Daly’s, 1927) 138
    34. Strauss, Nightbirds (Lyric, 1911) 133
    35. Stolz, The Blue Train (Prince of Wales’s, 1927) 126
    36. Lehár, The Three Graces (Empire, 1924) 121
    37. Straus, Cleopatra (Daly’s, 1925) 111
    38. Lehár, Frederica (Palace Theatre, 1930) 110
    39. Gilbert, The Cinema Star (Shaftesbury, 1914) 108
    40. Gilbert, Mam’selle Tra-La-La (Lyric, 1914) 107
    41. Künneke, The Cousin from Nowhere (Prince’s Theatre, 1923) 106
    42. Gilbert, The Joy-Ride Lady (New Theatre, 1914) 105
    43. Abraham, Viktoria and Her Hussar (Palace Theatre, 1931) 100
    44. Lehár, Clo-Clo (Shaftesbury, 1925) 95
    45. Kálmán, A Kiss in Spring (Alhambra, 1932) 83
    46. Eysler, The Laughing Husband (New Theatre, 1913) 78*
    47. Kálmán, Autumn Manoeuvres (Royal Adelphi Theatre, 1912) 74
    48. Benatzky, The Flying Trapeze (Alhambra Theatre, 1935) 73
    49. Lehár, The Land of Smiles (Drury Lane, 1931) 72
    50. Fall, The Merry Peasant (Strand Theatre, 1909) 69
    51. Eysler, The Girl Who Didn’t (Lyric, 1913) 68
    52. Kálmán, Maritza (Palace Theatre, 1938) 68
    53. Lincke, Castles in the Air (Scala Theatre, 1911) 65
    54. Straus, Love and Laughter (New Theatre, 1913) 65
    55. Reinhardt, The Spring Maid (Whitney Theatre, 1911) 63
    56. Lehár, Paganini (Lyceum, 1937) 59
    57. Lehár, Mitislaw (London Hippodrome, 1909) 56
    58. Straus, The Dancing Viennese (London Coliseum, 1912) 48**
    59. Granichstaedten, Hearts and Diamonds (Strand, 1926) 43
    60. Künneke, Love’s Awakening (Empire Theatre, 1922) 37
    61. Weill, A Kingdom for a Cow (Savoy Theatre, 1935) 18
    62. Benatzky, My Sister and I (Shaftesbury, 1931) 8
    63. Gilbert, Lovely Lady (Phoenix, 1932) 4

    * Revised version produced at the Lyric in Dec. 1913 as The Girl Who Didn’t.

    ** Preceded by 48 performances in German.

    40 have 100 performances or more.

    5 new German operetta adaptations produced in the West End in 1912, 3 in 1913, 3 in 1914. In 1912, Fall’s Darby and Joan (Brüderlein fein) produced at Coliseum, and Lincke’s The H’arum Lily at the London Pavilion) both one-act operettas. In 1914, Reinhardt’s The Daring of Diane (one act) was produced at the Pavilion.

    5 new productions in 1922, 3 in 1925, 5 in 1931, 5 in 1932. No productions of new operetta from the German stage after Maritza (1938) until Three Waltzes (Oscar Straus) in 1945.

    Operettas to English texts (1906–36) by composers for the German stage:

    1          Felix, The Merveilleuses (Daly’s, 1906)                                 197

    2          Fall (L.), The Eternal Waltz (London Hippodrome, 1911)                 100

    3          Fall (R.), Arms and the Girl (London Hippodrome, 1912)                95

    4          Straus, Love and Laughter (Lyric Theatre, 1913)                          67

    5          Kálmán, The Blue House (London Hippodrome, 1912)                     64

    6          Stolz, Rise and Shine (Drury Lane, 1936)                                 44

    7          Gilbert, The Girl from Cook’s (Gaiety, 1927)                             30

    8          Künneke, Riki-Tiki (Gaiety Theatre, 1926)                                18

    9          Künneke, Lover’s Lane (1923)                                              ?

    Operetta to French text by composer for German stage:

    Straus, Mariette (His Majesty’s Theatre, 1929)                                       21

    Operettas adapted directly from the Hungarian stage:

    1          Jacobi, The Marriage Market (Daly’s, 1913)                                423

    2          Jacobi, Sybil (Daly’s, 1921)                                              374

    Top Composers:

    Lehár               10

    Gilbert             9

    Straus              9

    Kálmán            7

    Fall                  6

    Benatzky        5

    The Top Twenty adaptations of silver-age operettas ranked in order of the highest number of West End performances, 1907–38. Date of first London performance given.

    1. Lehár, The Merry Widow (1907) 1317
    2. Berté/Schubert/Clutsam, Lilac Time (1922)                                     1092[1]
    3. Cuvillier, The Lilac Domino (1918) 747
    4. Benatzky, White Horse Inn (1931) 651
    5. Strauss Sr & Jr, Waltzes from Vienna (1931) 607
    6. Straus, The Chocolate Soldier (1910) 599
    7. Gilbert, The Girl in the Taxi (1912) 597
    8. Gilbert, The Lady of the Rose (1922) 543
    9. Gilbert, Katja, the Dancer (1925) 514
    10. Fall, The Dollar Princess (1909) 497
    11. Fall, Madame Pompadour (1923) 461
    12. Benatzky and Strauss, Casanova (1932) 429
    13. Jacobi, The Marriage Market (Daly’s, 1913) 423
    14. Mackeben and Millöcker, The Dubarry (1932) 398
    15. Jacobi, Sybil (Daly’s, 1921) 374
    16. Fall, The Girl in the Train (1910) 339
    17. Lehár, The Count of Luxembourg (1911) 339
    18. Lehár, Gipsy Love (1912) 299
    19. Stolz, Wild Violets (1932) 290
    20. Straus, The Last Waltz (1922) 283

    In top twenty are 3 by Gilbert, 3 by Lehár, 3 by Fall, and 2 by Jacobi, and 2 by Straus.

    English Adaptations of Operettas from the German Stage: New York 1907–38

    1. Berté/Schubert/Romberg, Blossom Time (Ambassador, 1921) 516
    2. Romberg (orig. Kollo), Maytime (Shubert Theatre, 1917) 492
    3. Lehár, The Merry Widow (New Amsterdam Theatre, 1907) 416
    4. Eysler, The Blue Paradise (Casino Theatre, 1915) 356
    5. Kálmán, Countess Maritza (Shubert Theatre, 1926) 321
    6. Strauss Jr. & Sr., arr. Korngold & Bittner, The Great Waltz(Center Theatre, 1934)  298
    7. Straus, The Chocolate Soldier (Lyric Theatre, 1909) 296
    8. Fall, The Dollar Princess (Knickerbocker Theatre, 1909) 288
    9. Gilbert, The Lady in Ermine, (Ambassador Theatre, 1922) 238
    10. Benatzky, White Horse Inn (Center Theatre, 1936) 233
    11. Kálmán, Miss Springtime (New Amsterdam Theatre, 1916) 224
    12. Stolz, Sky High (Shubert Theatre, 1925) 217
    13. Reinhardt, The Spring Maid (Liberty Theatre, 1910) 208
    14. Kálmán, Her Soldier Boy (Astor Theatre, 1916) 198
    15. Kálmán, The Circus Princess (Winter Garden Theatre, 1927) 192
    16. Straus, The Last Waltz (Century Theatre, 1921) 185
    17. Berény, Little Boy Blue (Lyric Theatre, 1911) 184
    18. Granichstaedten, The Rose Maid (Globe Theatre, 1912) 181
    19. Lehár, Alone at Last (Shubert Theatre, 1915)                         180
    20. Gilbert, The Red Robe (Shubert Theatre, 1928) 167
    21. Benatzky, Meet My Sister (Shubert Theatre, 1930) 167
    22. Künneke + Offenbach, The Love Song (Century Theatre, 1925) 157
    23. Kálmán, Sari (Liberty Theatre, 1914)             151
    24. Künneke, Caroline (Ambassador Theatre, 1923) 151
    25. Fall, The Siren (Knickerbocker Theatre, 1911) 136
    26. Reinhardt, The Purple Road (Liberty Theatre, 1913) 136
    27. Straus (+Strauss Sr & Jr) Three Waltzes (Majestic Theatre, 1937) 122
    28. Lehár, The Count of Luxembourg (New Amsterdam Theatre, 1912) 120
    29. Eysler, Vera Violetta (Winter Garden Theatre, 1911) 112
    30. Cuvillier, Flora Bella (Casino Theatre, 1916) 112
    31. Gilbert, Katja (44th Street Theatre, 1925)                         112
    32. Straus, A Waltz Dream (Broadway Theatre, 1908) 111
    33. Nedbal, The Peasant Girl (44th Street Theatre, 1915) 111
    34. Fall, The Rose of Stamboul (Century Theatre, 1922) 111
    35. Cuvillier, The Lilac Domino (44th Street Theatre, 1914) 109
    36. Kollo, Three Little Girls (Shubert Theatre, 1930) 104
    37. Gilbert, The Queen of the Movies (Globe Theatre, 1914) 104
    38. Ziehrer, Mlle. Mischief (Lyric Theatre, 1908) 96
    39. Lehár, Frederika (Imperial Theatre, 1937) 95
    40. Ziehrer, The Kiss Waltz (Casino Theatre, 1911) 88
    41. Fall, The Doll Girl (Globe Theatre, 1913) 88
    42. Burgess, et al. (orig. Straus), Naughty Riquette (Cosmopolitan,’26) 88
    43. Mackeben + Millöcker, The Du Barry (Cohen Theatre, 1932) 87
    44. Fall, Madame Pompadour (Martin Beck Theatre, 1924) 80
    45. Kálmán, The Yankee Princess (Knickerbocker Theatre, 1922) 80
    46. Eysler, The Love Cure (New Amsterdam Theatre, 1910) 78
    47. Romberg (orig. Ascher), Follow Me (Casino Theatre, 1916) 78
    48. Kálmán, The Riviera Girl (New Amsterdam Theatre, 1917) 78
    49. Berény, The Girl from Montmartre (Criterion Theatre, 1912) 72
    50. Kollo, Springtime of Youth (Broadhurst Theatre, 1922) 68
    51. Jarno, The Girl and the Kaiser (Herald Square Theatre, 1910) 64
    52. Kollo, The Girl on the Film (44th Street Theatre, 1913) 64
    53. Winterberg, The Girl from Brazil (44th Street Theatre, 1916) 61
    54. Gilbert, A Modern Eve (Casino Theatre, 1915) 56
    55. Lehár, The Man with Three Wives(Weber and Fields’ Music Hall, 1913)
    56. Eysler, The Laughing Husband (Knickerbocker Theatre, 1914) 48
    57. Winterberg, The Lady in Red (Lyric Theatre, 1919) 48
    58. Kálmán, The Gay Hussars (Knickerbocker Theatre, 1909) 44
    59. Fall, The Girl in the Train (Globe Theatre, 1910) 40
    60. Fall, Lieber Augustin (Casino Theatre, 1913) 37
    61. Heuberger, The Opera Ball (Liberty Theatre, 1912) 32
    62. Kálmán, The Woman Haters (Astor Theatre, 1912) 32
    63. Lehár, Gypsy Love (Globe Theatre, 1911) 31
    64. Gilbert, Modest Suzanne (Liberty Theatre, 1912)             24
    65. Berté, The Rose of Panama (Daly’s Theatre, 1912) 24
    66. Lehár, Eva (New Amsterdam Theatre, 1912) 24
    67. Straus, My Little Friend (New Amsterdam Theatre, 1913) 24
    68. Lehár, Maids of Athens (New Amsterdam Theatre, 1914) 22
    69. Straus, My Lady’s Glove (Lyric Theatre, 1917) 16
    70. Kollo, Phoebe of Quality Street (Shubert Theatre, 1921) 16
    71. Fall, The Eternal Waltz (Palace Theatre, 1913) 12
    72. Gilbert, Marching By (Chanin’s 46th Street Theatre, 1932) 12
    73. Weill, The Threepenny Opera (Empire Theatre, 1933) 12
    74. Lehár, The Star Gazer (Plymouth Theatre, 1917) 8
    75. Lehár, Where the Lark Sings (Manhattan Opera House, 1920) 5

    36 have runs of over 100.

    Last operetta here is Three Waltzes, which closed on 9 Apr. 1938. Last to be performed was Blossom Time on 26 Dec. 1938, closing after 19 perfs in Jan. 1939. Then nothing till 15 Jul. 1942, Merry Widow revival at Carnegie Hall (39 perfs). No Broadway production of a new operetta from the German stage until the belated New York premiere of Lehár’s Das Land des Lächelns in 1946, which then ran for just 36 performances under the title Yours Is My Heart. Kálmán’s Marinka (1945) was composed to an English text, and did well (165 perfs). Sky High was the title given to Stolz’s operetta Der Tanz ins Glück (1920), produced in London as Whirled into Happiness (Lyric Theatre, 1922).

    Operettas to English texts (1908–1938) by composers for the German stage:

    1          Goetzl, The Royal Vagabond (Cohan and Harris, 1919)                    348

    2          Jacobi & Kreisler, Apple Blossoms (Globe, 1919)                              256

    3          Kálmán, Golden Dawn (Hammerstein’s, 1927)                                 184

    4          Weill, Knickerbocker Holiday (Ethel Barrymore, 1938)                    168

    5          Felix, Lassie (Nora Bayes, 1920)                                                 159

    6          Künneke, The Love Song (Century, 1925)                                         157

    7          Weill, The Eternal Road (Manhattan Opera House, 1937)                153

    8          Felix, Pom-pom (Cohan, 1916)                                                     128

    9          Jacobi, Rambler Rose (Empire, 1917)                                               72

    10        Weill, Johnny Johnson (44th Street, 1936)                                         68

    11        Sirmay, Ripples (New Amsterdam, 1930)                                          55

    12        Jacobi, The Half Moon (Liberty, 1920)                                              48

    13        Felix, Peg-o’-My-Dreams (Jolson, 1924)                                           32

    14        Felix, Tantalizing Tommy (Criterion, 1912)                                       31

    15        Jacobi, The Love Letter (Globe, 1921)                                              31

    16        Holländer, The Charity Girl (Globe, 1912)                                        21

    17        Fall, The Eternal Waltz (Palace, 1913)                                             12

    Operettas adapted directly from the Hungarian stage:

    1          Jacobi, Sybil (Liberty, 1916)                                                    168

    2          Jacobi, The Marriage Market (Knickerbocker, 1913)                        88

    Top Composers:

    Lehár               10

    Kálmán            9

    Fall                  8

    Gilbert             7

    Straus              6

    Eysler              4

    Kollo               4

    The Top Twenty adaptations of silver-age operettas ranked in order of the highest number of Broadway performances, 1907–38. Date of first New York performance given.

    1. Berté/Schubert/Romberg, Blossom Time (1921) 651
    2. Lehár, The Merry Widow (1907) 520
    3. Straus, The Chocolate Soldier (1909) 441
    4. Eysler, The Blue Paradise (1915) 356
    5. Strauss Jr. & Sr., arr. Korngold & Bittner, The Great Waltz (Center Theatre, 1934) 347
    6. Kálmán, Countess Maritza (1926) 337
    7. Fall, The Dollar Princess (1909) 288
    8. Gilbert, The Lady in Ermine, (1922) 238
    9. Benatzky, White Horse Inn (1936) 233
    10. Kálmán, Miss Springtime (1916) 224
    11. Stolz, Sky High (1925) 217
    12. Reinhardt, The Spring Maid (1910) 208
    13. Kálmán, Her Soldier Boy (1916) 198
    14. Kálmán, The Circus Princess (1927) 192
    15. Straus, The Last Waltz (1921) 185
    16. Berény, Little Boy Blue (1911) 184
    17. Lehár, Alone at Last (1915) 180
    18. Granichstaedten, The Rose Maid (1912) 176
    19. Jacobi, Sybil (Liberty, 1916) 168
    20. Gilbert, The Red Robe (1928) 167
    21. Benatzky, Meet My Sister (1930) 167

    In the top twenty are 4 by Kálmán, 2 by Benatzky, 2 by Gilbert, 2 by Lehár, and 2 by Straus.

    [1] 35 performances were given in German at the Aldwych (1933).

    [1] Date given in the Künneke article in MGG for the London production. I have been unable to trace this performance.

  • Warsaw

    In the beginning of the nineteenth century operetta was one of the most extravagant theatrical attractions, and productions from Vienna and Berlin travelled all over Europe. Although Paris, Vienna, Berlin, Budapest, London, and New York were the capitals of operetta, it was thriving in other cities too. Habsburg operetta was popular in Poland, where opera and operetta houses in Warsaw, Poznań, L’viv, Krakow, and Łódź regularly presented works by major operetta composers. Operetta stars were popular in Polish and Russian theatres, whose public easily forgave their capriciousness and such frivolities as running away from creditors whilst appearing in lavish and well-paid productions. This section of the GOLNY research project will focus on famous Polish operetta stars and performances, their contributions to new interpretations, examine operettas favoured by the Polish public, and investigate the activities of the opera and operetta theatres in Poland in the period of 1905-1939.

    Warsaw Theatre Nowości
    This Warsaw theatre was built in 1901 on Hipoteczna street (which no longer exists). Governed by Warsaw Government Theatres.

    Warsaw, Nowości, (Novelties)
    This Warsaw theatre was built in 1901 on Hipoteczna street (which no longer exists). Governed by Warsaw Government Theatres, it was the main operetta theatre in the city, directed for a quarter of a century by Ludwik Śliwiński (1857-1923). During his directorship, the level of performances was often compared to that in Vienna and Berlin. Operettas performed in Nowości included:
    Johann Strauss’s Baron cygański (Der Zigeunerbaron); Leo Fall’s Rozwódka (Die geschiedene Frau), Królowa miliardów (Die Dollarprinzessin); Franz Lehár’s Cygańska miłość (Zigeunerliebe), Hrabia Luxemburg (Der Graf von Luxemburg), Róża Stambułu (Die Rose von Stambul), Biały mazur (Die blaue Mazur), Frasquita, Ewa (Eva), Paganini; Oscar Straus’s Czar walca (Ein Walzertraum), Emmerich [Imre] Kálmán’s Manewry jesienne (Tatárajárás, later Herbstmanöver), Bajadera; and Jean Gilbert’s Cnotliwa Zuzanna (Die keusche Susanne). Between 1921 and 1932 the theatre was called Nowośći, Metropolitan Operetta Theatre, Messal-Niewiarowska Theatre, and Orpheum, as a result of numerious changes in management. It closed its doors in 1932.
    The building survived the war, but was destroyed by the authorities shortly after, because it was deemed an undesirable remnant of bourgeoisie culture.

  • Theatres
    • Berlin
    • Vienna
    • London
    • New York
    • Warsaw
  • Operetta Celebrities
    • Singers
    • Composers
    • Producers/Directors
    • Librettists